The aim of education and culture is to improve the total human quality
of the Indonesian individual as a whole, increase the level of intelligence,
as well as the dignity and integrity of the nation, to create the Indonesian
people and society who believe in the One and Only God, qualified, independent,
and orientated towards mastering science and technology, have superiority
concept, entrepreneurship, patriotic, and encourage the realization of
the learning society toward the establishment of a civil society.
The Target and Policies of Education
and Cultural Development
The targets of development in the field of education and culture during
development reform era are:.
a. To secure and accomplish the Program of Compulsory Nine Year
Basic Education in the framework of supporting the program of improving people's
welfare and poverty alleviation.
b. To reestablish education for children of earlier age in the
family and society environment.
c. To implement the program of intervention in elementary and
secondary education to maintain level of participation and prevent drop out.
d. To maintain the capacity of higher learning because of monetary
e. To improve the quality of all kinds and levels of education
and education relevance in the vocational school
and higher learnings education (university).
f. To carry out the program of package A and B Learning
Group as a safety valve of finishing the Compulsory Nine Year Basic Education for drop outs and
as effort to alleviate poverty.
g. To improve the management of resources in the framework of
revitalization and empowerment of education management.
h. To maintain endeavors of learning which have been obtained
so far in the field of education (APK of higher education is 11.8%, APK of senior high school
is 37%, APK of junior high school is 69%, and APM of elementary School is 95%) by continuing making
efforts constantly to prevent students drop out by providing scholarships for about 4.36 million students
at various level of education.
i. To increase, develop and conserve the national culture as a dynamic one, and
improve the achievement of Indonesia in the international forum in
the field of culture and art work.
j. To affirm the position and role of the Indonesian Language
as a unifying language and language of state, besides to conserve and develop local languages.
To reach the target, the strategy used is continuing the policy of social
safety net program, improving professionalism to maintain and improve the
quality and relevance of education; carrying out even distribution and
democratization of education; reforming organization and management of
education in the framework to make efficient and effective the education
improvement; revitalization of the development of national culture.
Therefore the main policies made in 1999 are as follows:
a. To enhance the program of managing monetary and economic crisis
impact, by remaining to the quality and relevance of education so that internal efficiency
and the target sharpening of the social safety net program
can be improved.
b. To improve education quality according to the need of development
with national cultural outlook to strengthen the sense of nationality so that the national
culture could become the tool for unity and oneness of the nation to strengthen
identity and promote dignity and integrity by way of investing cultural values, devotion,
and good attitude in the educational, family and social
environment, including coeds in all fields and on all levels of education as guided
by MPR Decree No. X/MPR/1998.
c. To strengthen the image of the education unit as a learning
center in creating superiority and community learning by actualizing
education values and norms rewarding and sanctioning in prosperous society;
to increase the effectivity of the teaching learning process;
to teach discipline and creativity at the early age, to adapt learning,
working and developing as culture; to improve
professional performance of teachers, lecturers and other educational workers:
and empower the capability of management, leadership, and model figure of the school
master, university head and the head of non-formal education institution.
Nine Year Education Compulsory
To support the implementation of the compulsory nine year education
program and in effort to keep the pupils going to school, scholarship have
been made available for students of poor families. Also operational assistance
fund (DBO) are given to schools in poor areas through the Social Safety
Net (JPS) Program. In effort to accomplish the compulsory nine-year primary
education program "package A" and "package B" learning programs (of elementary
and middle school level learning material) have been carried out by involving
related NGOs. Beside that efforts have been made to provide information
concerning the importance of education through printed and electronic media
by campaigning the "Aku Anak Sekolah" (I am a school child) program and
early registration for the school age children of
poor families (AUS-KM).
In one year the government has implemented the program of Package A
of the elementary education level, to 111,790 students including 240 street
children; Package B junior secondary education level learning group amounting
to 327,690 persons including 560 street children: package A learning group
to eliminate illiteracy and functional letters for 582,880 persons; the
Business learning group program for 39,875 persons and program for scholarships
and on the job training for 6,631 persons. In addition evaluations were
made on the learning result at national level (prehabtanas). Of the 43,298
persons of package A learning group exam, 38,563 persons (89.06%) have
passed, of the 98,369 persons of package B learning group, 83.96% have
passed the exam. Also area mapping activities were carried out for the
implementation of the program for younger age children (PADU) in 12 districts
of trial area.
In the era of reformation, the government has implemented deregulation
in the field of education including: exemption of tuition fee (SPP) and
registration fee which was previously collected at the beginning of school
year by the parents and teachers organization (BP3) and other contributions
from elementary school (SD) until senior secondary school (SLTA) levels;
providing basic education books with the ratio of one book for one student;
student manners and method for effective learning; school uniform is still
needed but not obligatory.
Students who could not take final exams or the national final exam because
of financial restriction could obtain a letter of recommendation from the
school master to continue their studies on a higher level. Meanwhile, the
development of elementary education services program which was integratedly
designed with the education decentralization model has been prepared in
the six provinces of West Java, Bengkulu, Riau, North Sumatra, and Maluku
to empower second level territories in designing program integratedly by
involving related institutions.
One of the efforts to enhance the quality of education is by exercising
the school based management system with the purpose that improvement of
the education quality in schools is carried out with a well prepared
and integrated planning. For this purpose, sincfe 1999/2000
the selected schools will obtain operational fund to improve quality.
Higher Learning Education
As an impact of the decline of enrollment of new students in recent
years, revitalization of elementary schools have been carried out by regrouping
schools in various areas. Responding to the demand of the community and
business society for skilled workers in the global and industrial era,
the government has reengineered vocational schools. The global era
has made an impact on the increase of working relationship among countries,
including relationship between state universities and local governments,
and foreign universities working together with Indonesian universities.
With this condition, adjustments were made regarding Government Regulation
No. 30/1990, particularly article 120. The new stipulation regulates that
foreign parties are not allowed to organize higher education in Indonesia.
In addition, the single pattern of guidance towards higher education institutions
have been practiced, which means that both the state and private higher
learning institutions will be treated equally.In an effort to accelerate
the process of promoting the head of private universities, Government Regulation
No. 30/1990 was amended by Government Regulation No. 57/1998 which regulates
that the approval and inauguration of the head of a private higher learning
institution only needs approval from the BP-PTS foundation) and that
it be reported to the Minister of Education and Cultures.
A university as a moral force in the process of developing civil society,
in this globalization era should be able to compete. In response to this
matter, a draft Government Regulation has been made concerning State Higher
Learning Institution autonomy in developing programs, managing and utilizing
resources especially funds from the people or government sources and utilizing
natural resources in the surroundings as a comparative and competitive
The impact of prolonged economic crisis would among others cause drop
outs of students from poor families and laid off employees. To overcome
this condition scholarships have been made available for students with
financial problems, and financial assistance for operational costs for
higher learning institutions which are in need. Beside that, to prepare
university graduates to enter the working society, during the last year
of study they obtain guidance on entrepreneurship, to encourage them to
create job and job opportunities, in addition to producing human resources
with expertise which is in demand in the national development.
Government Regulation No. 57/1999 has been issued amend Government Regulation
No. 30/1990, concerning Cooperation in the field of high learning education.
Also, the draft Government Regulation regarding the establishment of Higher
Learning Institution as Corporate Body has been formulated, as an effort
to realize fair play and transparency of human resources allocations in
Minister of Education and Culture Decision No. 155/U/1998 has been issued
to give freedom to university students In determining and choosing a name
for their organization, so that students can be more free to express their
organizational potentials. Meanwhile the concept of entrepreneurship has
been promoted to the faculties of state universities; 1,400 personnel ofSP-3
consisting of 1,100 personnel ofSP3 groups and 300 personnel of SP-3 accompanying
poverty elevation program.
In an effort to help the program of poverty alleviation and rural economic
utilization, the government has implemented programs of endeavor learning
group, job trainings, courses of Non-Formal and social education, and Graduates
in Development Motivating in villages (SP-3). Empowerment of villagers
in the planning, Implementation and control of programs regarding development
of the very young children (PADU) are carried out integratedly with that
on health, nutrition, and education. In the meantime, the people's potentials
are stimulated to organize non-formal education groups through the Center
of Community Learning Activity (PKBM). In an effort to improve the quality
of public services in the field of community education, standardization
of functional letters program has been conducted based on the people's
interest and demand; also the standardization of non-formal courses and
quality control of the result of Package A and B.
In an effort to increase the sports achievements, rewards have been
granted to prominant senior and junior athletes of all sports branches.
In addition, special trainings and guidance are extended through a transparent
process of selection of talented students at the education and training
center of the Ragunan junior and senior high schools and PPLP. In the framework
to introduce Indonesia to the world, efforts have been made to improve
achievements in the international forum particularly in the field of culture
and art through international festivals and conferences. In addition efforts
have been made to develop the national museum into an international level
center for the collection of preserved arts and craft, and research center
and cultural recreation center. To unify this big nation and increase
national pride, endeavors are continuously
made to strengthen the position and role of the Indonesian language
as the national language.