INDONESIA´s HANDBOOK 2000

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CONTENTS

FOREWORD
LAND
PEOPLE
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
DEVELOPMENT ACHIEVEMENTS
Economic Recovery
People's Welfare and Poverty Eradication
Food and Horticulture
National Logistics Agency
Investment
Agriculture
Industry and Trade
Mining and Energy
Cooperatives, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
Transportation and Communications
Transmigration
The Law
The Environment
Defense and Security
Health
Social Affairs
Manpower
The Role of Women in National Development
Population and Family Planning
Religious Life
Education and Culture
Science and Technology
Housing and Settlement
Agrarian Affairs
The Younger Generation and Sports
Tourism, Arts and Culture
Empowerment of State Enterprises

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

The aim of education and culture is to improve the total human quality of the Indonesian individual as a whole, increase the level of intelligence, as well as the dignity and integrity of the nation, to create the Indonesian people and society who believe in the One and Only God, qualified, independent, and orientated towards mastering science and technology, have superiority concept, entrepreneurship, patriotic, and encourage the realization of the learning society toward the establishment of a civil society.

The Target and Policies of Education and Cultural Development

The targets of development in the field of education and culture during development reform era are:.

a.  To secure and accomplish the Program of Compulsory Nine Year Basic Education in the framework of supporting the program of improving people's welfare and poverty alleviation.

b.  To reestablish education for children of earlier age in the family and society environment.

c.  To implement the program of intervention in elementary and secondary education to maintain level of participation and prevent drop out.

d.  To maintain the capacity of higher learning because of monetary crisis impact.

e.  To improve the quality of all kinds and levels of education and education relevance in the vocational school 
     and higher learnings education (university).

f.   To carry out the program of package A and B Learning Group as a safety valve of finishing the Compulsory Nine Year Basic Education for drop outs and as effort to alleviate poverty.

g.  To improve the management of resources in the framework of revitalization and empowerment of education management.

h.  To maintain endeavors of learning which have been obtained so far in the field of education (APK of higher education is 11.8%, APK of senior high school is 37%, APK of junior high school is 69%, and APM of elementary School is 95%) by continuing making efforts constantly to prevent students drop out by providing scholarships for about 4.36 million students at various level of education.

i. To increase, develop and conserve the national culture as a dynamic one, and improve the achievement of Indonesia in the international forum in the field of culture and art work.

j.   To affirm the position and role of the Indonesian Language as a unifying language and language of state, besides to conserve and develop local languages.

To reach the target, the strategy used is continuing the policy of social safety net program, improving professionalism to maintain and improve the quality and relevance of education; carrying out even distribution and democratization of education; reforming organization and management of education in the framework to make efficient and effective the education improvement; revitalization of the development of national culture.

Therefore the main policies made in 1999 are as follows:

a.  To enhance the program of managing monetary and economic crisis impact, by remaining to the quality and relevance of education so that internal efficiency and the target sharpening of the social safety net program   can be improved.

b.  To improve education quality according to the need of development with national cultural outlook to strengthen the sense of nationality so that the national culture could become the tool for unity and oneness of the nation to strengthen identity and promote dignity and integrity by way of investing cultural values, devotion, and good attitude in the educational, family and social environment, including coeds in all fields and on all levels of education as guided by MPR Decree No. X/MPR/1998.

c.  To strengthen the image of the education unit as a learning center in creating superiority and community learning by actualizing education values and norms rewarding and sanctioning in prosperous society; to increase the effectivity of the teaching learning process; to teach discipline and creativity at the early age, to adapt learning, working and developing as culture; to improve professional performance of teachers, lecturers and other educational workers: and empower the capability of management, leadership, and model figure of the school master, university head and the head of non-formal education institution.

Nine Year Education Compulsory Prograin

To support the implementation of the compulsory nine year education program and in effort to keep the pupils going to school, scholarship have been made available for students of poor families. Also operational assistance fund (DBO) are given to schools in poor areas through the Social Safety Net (JPS) Program. In effort to accomplish the compulsory nine-year primary education program "package A" and "package B" learning programs (of elementary and middle school level learning material) have been carried out by involving related NGOs. Beside that efforts have been made to provide information  concerning the importance of education through printed and electronic media by campaigning the "Aku Anak Sekolah" (I am a school child) program and early registration for the school age children of
poor families (AUS-KM).

In one year the government has implemented the program of Package A of the elementary education level, to 111,790 students including 240 street children; Package B junior secondary education level learning group amounting to 327,690 persons including 560 street children: package A learning group to eliminate illiteracy and functional letters for 582,880 persons; the Business learning group program for 39,875 persons and program for scholarships and on the job training for 6,631 persons. In addition evaluations were made on the learning result at national level (prehabtanas). Of the 43,298 persons of package A learning group exam, 38,563 persons (89.06%) have passed, of the 98,369 persons of package B learning group, 83.96% have passed the exam. Also area mapping activities were carried out for the implementation of the program for younger age children (PADU) in 12 districts of trial area.

In the era of reformation, the government has implemented deregulation in the field of education including: exemption of tuition fee (SPP) and registration fee which was previously collected at the beginning of school year by the parents and teachers organization (BP3) and other contributions from elementary school (SD) until senior secondary school (SLTA) levels; providing basic education books with the ratio of one book for one student; student manners and method for effective learning; school uniform is still needed but not obligatory.

Students who could not take final exams or the national final exam because of financial restriction could obtain a letter of recommendation from the school master to continue their studies on a higher level. Meanwhile, the development of elementary education services program which was integratedly designed with the education decentralization model has been prepared in the six provinces of West Java, Bengkulu, Riau, North Sumatra, and Maluku to empower second level territories in designing program integratedly by involving related institutions.

One of the efforts to enhance the quality of education is by exercising the school based management system with the purpose that improvement of the education quality in schools is carried out with a well prepared  and integrated  planning.  For this purpose,  sincfe 1999/2000 the selected schools will obtain operational fund to improve quality.

Higher Learning Education

As an impact of the decline of enrollment of new students in recent years, revitalization of elementary schools have been carried out by regrouping schools in various areas. Responding to the demand of the community and business society for skilled workers in the global and industrial era, the government has reengineered  vocational schools. The global era has made an impact on the increase of working relationship among countries, including relationship between state universities and local governments, and foreign universities working together with Indonesian universities. With this condition, adjustments were made regarding Government Regulation  No. 30/1990, particularly article 120. The new stipulation regulates that foreign parties are not allowed to organize higher education in Indonesia. In addition, the single pattern of guidance towards higher education institutions have been practiced, which means that both the state and private higher learning institutions will be treated equally.In an effort to accelerate the process of promoting the head of private universities, Government Regulation No. 30/1990 was amended by Government Regulation No. 57/1998 which regulates that the approval and inauguration of the head of a private higher learning institution only needs approval from the BP-PTS  foundation) and that it be reported to the Minister of Education and Cultures.

A university as a moral force in the process of developing civil society, in this globalization era should be able to compete. In response to this matter, a draft Government Regulation has been made concerning State Higher Learning Institution autonomy in developing programs, managing and utilizing resources especially funds from the people or government sources and utilizing natural resources in the surroundings as a comparative and competitive advantage.

The impact of prolonged economic crisis would among others cause drop outs of students from poor families and laid off employees. To overcome this condition scholarships have been made available for students with financial problems, and financial assistance for operational costs for higher learning institutions which are in need. Beside that, to prepare university graduates to enter the working society, during the last year of study they obtain guidance on entrepreneurship, to encourage them to create job and job opportunities, in addition to producing human resources with expertise which is in demand in the national development.

Government Regulation No. 57/1999 has been issued amend Government Regulation No. 30/1990, concerning Cooperation in the field of high learning education. Also, the draft Government Regulation regarding the establishment of Higher Learning Institution as Corporate Body has been formulated, as an effort to realize fair play and transparency of human resources allocations in universities.

Minister of Education and Culture Decision No. 155/U/1998 has been issued to give freedom to university students In determining and choosing a name for their organization, so that students can be more free to express their organizational potentials. Meanwhile the concept of entrepreneurship has been promoted to the faculties of state universities; 1,400 personnel ofSP-3 consisting of 1,100 personnel ofSP3 groups and 300 personnel of SP-3 accompanying poverty elevation program.

Non-Formal Education

In an effort to help the program of poverty alleviation and rural economic utilization, the government has implemented programs of endeavor learning group, job trainings, courses of Non-Formal and social education, and Graduates in Development Motivating in villages (SP-3). Empowerment of villagers in the planning, Implementation and control of programs regarding development of the very young children (PADU) are carried out integratedly with that on health, nutrition, and education. In the meantime, the people's potentials are stimulated to organize non-formal education groups through the Center of Community Learning Activity (PKBM). In an effort to improve the quality of public services in the field of community education, standardization of functional letters program has been conducted based on the people's interest and demand; also the standardization of non-formal courses and quality control of the result of Package A and B.

In an effort to increase the sports achievements, rewards have been granted to prominant senior and junior athletes of all sports branches. In addition, special trainings and guidance are extended through a transparent process of selection of talented students at the education and training center of the Ragunan junior and senior high schools and PPLP. In the framework to introduce Indonesia to the world, efforts have been made to improve achievements in the international forum particularly in the field of culture and art through international festivals and conferences. In addition efforts have been made to develop the national museum into an international level center for the collection of preserved arts and craft, and research center and cultural recreation center. To unify this big nation and increase  national  pride,  endeavors  are  continuously  made  to strengthen the position and role of the Indonesian language as the national language.

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