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Considering that the current growth of the economy in Indonesia still depends on the supply of natural resources and environmental services and that only a small amount is identified, the target of development during Repelita VI was directed towards:

(1) increasing the quantity and quality of identified natural and environmental resources:
(2) maintaining the conservation areas;
(3) improving the environmental management system:
(4) controlling pollution, particularly in densely development and populated areas:
(5) handling coastal destruction:
(6) increasing efforts to rehabilitate critical land.

Considering its development targets, the policy concerning the environment is formulates to cover:

(1) choosing development locations:
(2) lessening garbage production:
(3) managing waste:
(4) establishing quality standard;
(5) rehabilitating and preserving natural resources and the environment:
(6) developing the institution, the people's participation and human resources.

The various policies in Repelita VI are realized in six main programs. namely:

(1) inventory and evaluating natural resources and the environment:
(2) saving the forest, land and water:
(3) developing and managing the environment;
(4) managing environmental pollution;
(5) rehabilitating critical land;
(6) developing coastal areas.

The six programs were realized in 70 provincial activities as reference to various institutions (ministries and non-ministerial government institutions), regional governments, enterprises and the community. The activities are related to environmental management carried out integratedly through the mechanism of "one door policy" as was determined by the First RAKORNAS (National Coordination Meeting) of Environmental Management, in November 1994.

In implementing sustainable development,  during fiscal year 1998/1999 the various activities, grouped in four programs, are out as follows:

•  Inventory and evaluation of natural resources and the environment.
•  Promotion and management of the environment.
•  Management of environmental pollution.
•  Promotion of coastal areas by the environmental management project for sea and coastal areas.

Following are steps taken by the government:

•  formulate implementation regulations of Law No. 23/1997 concerning environmental management. This regulation constitutes one of the 50 points in the RI-IMF commitment on the environment. It was designed to focus more on the empowerment of the regional role and increase of the people's participation in environmental management with the principle of a transparent information;

•  increase the quality of regional institutions by giving more extensive authority in efforts to manage the environment.

Therefore, relations have been more improved between the central, regional and sectoral Bapedal by expanding communication and synchronization between the national policies on environmental management and the implementations. • apply the regional environmental management policy which would bring benefit to all sides (win-win solution), • covering industrial aspect in the midst of globalization and the free-market era, and preventing environmental destruction as well as facilitate environmental friendly production to the consumers.

The government has also developed measures, such as:

•  the Zero Burning Policy, launched by the President of Indonesia at the commemoration of World Environmental Day, on June 4, 1999;

•  the confirmation of institutional authorities to clarify the function and responsibility of each related institution and the mechanism of detection, advocation, prevention and handling of fire and smoke impact, which is formulated in the legislation;

•  drafting government regulations concerning prevention and management of forest and land fires covering the regulation on the sanction that a land owner could be held liable for any fireaccident occurring on his/her property.

The Policy

In enhancing the effectivity of the environmental management, the government has developed a nationwide regional lay-out. Efforts are also made to re-evaluate, to cancel and replace available Presidential decisions, which have been realized in the areas of Lake Toba in North Sumatra, the one-million hectares peat land in Central Kalimantan, the north-coast of Java and Jonggol. Improvements have been made in the natural resources management system of the sea and coastal areas and the protection of the ecosystem atmosphere in the form of glass-house gas concentration management with regard to climate change and management of the ozone depletion by encouraging enterprises that are still using Chloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC)/Ozone Depletion Substances (ODS) and its equipment to substitute with environmental friendly substances. Meanwhile, efforts were made for early prevention of forest-fires and enforcement of laws regarding trading of protected animals. To overcome forest and land-fires, development efforts are directed towards training programs on the anticipation of forest and land-fire, ways for a safe forest clearing and canalization.

In managing air pollution, at present there are five monitoring stations to continuously measure the ISPU (Air Pollution Standard Index) in Jakarta, Serpong (West Java), Jambi (Jambi), Pontianak (West Kalimantan) and Nusa Dua (Bali). In addition, work is underway to install integrated monitoring stations in 10 big cities, namely: Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Surabaya, Medan, Jambi, Pakanbaru, Palangkaraya, Pontianak, and Denpasar.

Government measures related to the handling of soil waste import from Singapore cover: (a) prohibit entry of waste and B3 waste into Indonesia's territory; (b) make efforts that production and services enterprises in Indonesia do not produce waste and if so, it would be in small intensity and recycled. If it needs to be disposed, the waste should not cause pollution; (c) encourages Indonesian enterprise to produce waste disposal facilities.

The enhancement of environmental programs in the small-scale and big-scale industries are realized with the system of environmental management and clean-production voluntarily into the principles of efficiency and productivity, supported by the improvement of supporting facilities such as: National Standardization for ISO 14000 in cooperation with the National Standardization Board; Ecolabeling for paper and paper products; Technological guidance on environmental impact management for the Hotel and Rubber industries; Guidance on clean-product application model and environmental management system for textile and tannery industries; Environmental Consultation Group of the small-scale and tannery industries as a facility for application of environmental programs voluntarily.

The Institutional Field

During the economic crisis period in the reformation era, decision making on environmental management needs to be quickly and accurately supported by stable and comprehensive analysis and application. Considering that in the reformation era the economic, social and political life style is fastly and dynamically, by Presidential Decision No. 101/1998 and a Decision of MENLH of the Office of the Minister of State for Environment (MENLH) and Environmental Impact Management Board (Bapedal) was established.

The reorganization of Bapedal is by Presidential Decision No. 196/1998 concerning Bapedal, followed by the issuance of Bapedal Chairman Decision No. 18/1999. This new decision, regulates the restructurization of the Office of MENLH and Bapedal and the double function of the Assistant Minister of State for the Environment and the Deputy of the Environmental Impact Management Board. Relations between the central, regional, and sectoral Bapedal has been more developed through the improvement of communications and synchronization of the national policy on environmental management and its implementation. The central institutional quality has been improved, while regional Bapedals, first and second regional level Bapedal Offices were established to increase the effectivity of environmental management in the regions.

Various kinds of environmental training and education have been conducted by business enterprises and the community at large. The people's, including the NGOs, participation have also been increased as one of the main condition for a successful environmental management and preservation. Efforts were made by business enterprises in enhancing the efficiency in the consumption of energy and natural resources related to the application of the ecoefficiency principle. Various kinds of trainings have also been executed by PUSARPEDAL and other institutions to increase the capability and skills of their staff on the management of the environmental impact.

To increase performance on environmental management, a data and information center has been established in the Bapedal compound by providing information on environmental management which has been getting more complex.

To support the efforts of environmental management, the capacity of the referral laboratory has been increased and 60 laboratories owned by sectoral and regional institutions have been developed to a solid environmental laboratory network.

International Cooperation

One of the achievements in the field of international cooperation is the ratification of international conventions on global environmental management, which are: (a) Convention on the ozone-layer protection and the elimination of chemical substances causing ozonedepletion; (b) Convention on climate change that resulted an agreement to manage industrial and transportation activities and the use of glass-house gas energy that can cause environmental damage; (c) Convention on Bio-diversity that resulted an international agreement for the conservation and further utilization of biological resources and a consent to a fair share of profit for each side from the use of the components; (d) Convention on Deserts was ratified by Indonesia to realize commitment on the efforts of global environmental management related with the turning into desert process. It is deemed necessary to be observant about the possibility of a process of turning into a desert, if land conversion is not well planned and managed; (e) Convention on Hazardous Substance Management.

On the regional level, Indonesia has actively participated in ASEAN forums to prevent border air pollution by way of prevention of forest and land fires. During the government of the Development Reform Cabinet, the ASEAN Ministers for the Environment have had three meetings, including the ASEAN Ministerial Informal Meeting In Brunei Darussalam to, among others, discuss the development of smoke pollution management.

As an archipelago, Indonesia has become one of the destination countries for dumping waste and B-3 refuse, which are prohibited in the original countries. Therefore,  Indonesia and Singapore have agreed to cooperate in efforts to control B-3 garbage substance entry to Indonesia.

As a commitment of Indonesia at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Government has actively participated in CSD Forum (Commission on Sustainable Development) and pioneering development efforts of Agenda 21 in both regional and sectoral levels as further action of Indonesia's Agenda 21 (national level).

Law and Regulations

One of the programs to implement the RI-IMF agreement on the environment is the formulation of regulations on Law No. 23/1997 concerning environmental management.

Current laws and regulations concerning environmental management are among others:
i.   Government  Regulation  No.   18/1999  concerning  Hazardous  Substance Waste (B3) Management;
ii.  Government  Regulation  No.  19/1999  concerning  Handling  of Sea Destruction and Pollution;
iii. Government Regulation No.  27/1999 concerning Analyzes on the Environmental Impact;
iv.  Government  Regulation  No.  41/1999 concerning Air Pollution Management.

Environmental Cases

Environmental destruction and pollution (KRAPP) in Teluk Buyat (North Sulawesi) is presumed as the result of mud tallying waste produced by PT Newmont Minahasa Raya gold mining. A study of the "ANTI Volunteer Group" revealed that the number of fish species has decreased from 17 to 5. In response to a letter from Bapedal to the Police force on June 9, 1999, an integrated team has been formed comprising BAPEDALDA, experts from UNSRAT (University of Sam Ratulangi) and local NGOs to pinpoint the source of pollution.

On March 25, 1999, at 08.00 WIB (Western Indonesian Time) an accident of ammoniac gas tube leaks occurred in the compound of PT Ajinomoto. This accident happens during the process of ammoniac injection from a container truck to an ammoniac tank. A number of 39 people in the area were affected by the pollution resulted from this accident. A Bapedal team has made investigation on the site and concluded that the conditions has returned to normal. PT Ajinomoto was liable to the cost incurred by the accident.

The Enggano Foundation on November 27, 1998 has reported about the unauthorized forest-cutting by PT Enggano Dwipa Persada. In regard with this violation, the Deputy IV of Bapedal has sent a letter to the Attorney General, Head of the Police and the Ministry of Forestry and Plantation for further action.

The population around the Banger River in Pekalongan Municipality have complained about pollution of the river. Investigations made by Bapedal revealed that of the 17 factories operating in the area, only 5 produced hazardous waste, causing pollution. The five factories have continued production activities although the licenses were terminated. The community together with NGO WALHI (Indonesian Environmental Organization) have pressed charges and matters are being handled by the Civil Court in Pekalongan.

A factory in the Purwakarta District (West Java) produces waste which is not managed correctly, and has caused pollution of the Citarum River, resulting to a lower water quality of the river. A study on the spot was conducted by a team from the Police Headquarters and Bapedal. Latest status of this incident is being processed in the civil court of Purwakarta.

The sludge interceptor pool of PT Indo Lampung Distillery producing ethane broke down, causing the death of 900 tons of fish in Way Seputih, Lampung. A Bapedal team has conducted data collecting together with the Lampung Regional Police. The latest status of this accident is being processed.

MENLH/Bapedal Chairman has given instruction that the environmental audit is coveraged in the total audit, which will be against PT Indorayon Utama. It is deemed necessary to investigate the decrease of the natural resources (resource accounting) and audit the environmental risk (risk assessment). In the meantime, PT Indorayon Utama has been temporarily closed by the President.

Nature preservation by managing natural park


The State Defense and Security is focused on the integrated power of Indonesian Defense Forces or TNI, the Police and the people, supported by all national wealth. Therefore, the system of defense and security of the Indonesian State is called SISHANKAMRATA (the System of Overall People's Defense and Security).

The people's rights and duty in national defense is stipulated by the 1945 Constitution on further regulated by law. The level of people's involvement in national defense is adjusted with the level of existing situation.

As the concept of state defense and security that is oriented to the future must be capable to anticipate development that influence defense-security problems. The existing concept can not be separated from historical process of a nation and based on the objective condition of certain period. That's why, the concept must be capable to cover its environment, completely and comprehensively oriented to the future without ignoring past experience.

Based on that concept, the government forms the basic policy in Development Reform Cabinet as regard defense and security:

•  To maintain and step up national defense by growing and fertilizing the sense of love towards the motherland, nation, social and state consciousness in order to realize a nation in an integrated society based on Pancasila and 1945 Constitution;

•  To realize the Nusantara archipelago with its national jurisdiction territory as a Hankamneg (state defense and security) unity in forming the Nusantara Outlook.

The strategy and policy of defense and security forms a factor of national strategies existed in an integrated concept with other components. In national sphere, national security contains the interest to keep the national system, welfare improvement and poverty alleviation and the efforts to realize regional security environment to be safe and peaceful used to establish world peace.

The strategy of defense and security in the Development Reform Cabinet use the potential of national strength to form and influence strategic environment, so that the possible conflict can be neutralized and when it occurs, it can produce a greater success of handling. By utilizing national strength, the potential of HANKAMNEG can be observed quantitatively and qualitatively, big and small, so that the level and effect of prevention is greater too. The strategy of defense and security must be capable to prevent threat potentials through development and power expansion and provide direction towards the formation of national plan.

In line with the people's demand for reform to the whole of the nation, especially in the field of political, law, and economic, so that government have taken several concrete steps covering : the attitude and political opinion of the military on its socio-political roles: attitude and political opinion of TNI on its new-paradigm in the XXI century:  the separation of the Police from TNI stated in TNI-Commander-in-Chief Decision issued on April 1, 1999 as the start of transformation: the abolition of central and regional socio-political council: the alteration of socio-political staff to be "territorial stafF: the liquidation of some social-political and promotional agencies in the military such as "Syawan ABRI Skamtibrnas and Babinkar, "So- spoldam, Babinkardam. Sospol Korem."

Other steps taken by the government are the abolition of TNI social works through the decision of retirement and status change: the decrease of ABRI faction number in DPR (the House of Representatives). TNI will never be involved again in practical politics as well as politics at present, the severance of organizational relation from Golkar Party and taking a same distance with all political parties: the statement of commitment and consistency of TNI attitude in General Election: the alteration of related paradigm of TNI with the greater military family (KBA) and the revision of software equipment of various TNI doctrines, which are in conformity with the reform era and ABRIs role in the XXI century.

Through those steps, the separation of POLRI structures from ABRI Headquarters has been accomplished in line with Decision of the Minister of Defense and Security/Commander in Chief of TNI No. KEP/02/M/1999 issued on March 8. 1999 concerning the revocation of  Decision  of  the  Minister  of  Defense  and  Security  No. KEP/04/1/1997 concerning the Delegation of Authority in the Police Operational Activities. This decision came into force on April 1. 1999 with the aims and targets: POLRI will be more self-reliant and professional in "Kamtibrnas" (security and order) duties.

Meanwhile, the government has formed "KAMRA" (People's Security) amounting to 40.000 persons in order to help POLRI's tasks. This policy is taken by the government in view of state defense and security having a close relation with the concentration of attitude and determination of the Indonesian people to defend and maintain the unity of the Republic of Indonesia, where those efforts become a pride and honor for every citizen.

In the framework of fulfilling reform demands, the government has decreased the number of military seats in DPR as stipulated in MPR decision No. 111/MPR/1998 dated November 13, 1998. The total number of TNI faction in central DPR is decreased from the former 75 persons to 38 persons now, consisting of 17 persons of the Army, 8 persons of the Navy, 8 persons of the Air Force and 8 persons of the Police. The number of TNI faction in DPRD-I and DPRD-II makes up 10% of those elected members.

The decision of status in the assignment of nonstructural/functional Dephankam/TNI duty is regulated by the telegram letter ofTNI's Commander-in-Chief No. STR/236/1999. dated March 3, 1999 that stipulates among other things: They (the military member) must decide their choice to retire from ABRI or change their status to be PNS (civil employee) or return them to the structure/function of Dephankam/ABRI.

In the socialization of law product, the government has publicized Law No. 2 of 1999 concerning Political Parties, Law No. 3 of 1999 concerning General Election, Law No. 4 of 1999 concerning the Composition and Status of MPR, DPR, and DPRD, Government Regulation No. 5 of 1999 and Government Regulation No. 12 of 1999 concerning the PNS as members of political parties, which will be practiced in PNS of Dephankarn.

The other works in the field of law include the socialization of Law No. 9 of 1999 concerning the freedom of expression in public to the whole of Indonesia's territories, which have been implemented by a joint-team consisting of the Ministry of Defense and Security, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Home Affairs, starting from December 1998 till March 1999.

As the consequence of POLRI's separation from ABRI, the government has produced the concept of revision towards the regulation of law related to state defense and security, among other things: Law No. 20 of 1982 concerning state defense and security: Law No. 26 of 1987 concerning the discipline of ABRI soldiers: Law No. 2 of 1988 on ABRI soldiers. Law No. 28 of 1987 concerning Indonesian Police and Law No. 31 of 1987 concerning Martial Court.

The November 1998 MPR Special Session had produced various MPR Decrees having reform dimension, which made national reform more legitimate and better directed. The President has sanctioned Presidential Regulation No. 29 of 1998 concerning Follow-up Coordination to MPR Decree resulted by the 1998 MPR Special Session, which have been forwarded to Coordinating Ministries to coordinate Ministries/Heads of LPND (Non-Ministerial Government Institution) and related institutions in order to implement the follow-up to MPR Decrees. Coordinating Minister for Political and Security Affairs coordinates the follow-up of the MPR Decree No. VIII/MPR/1998 concerning the Revocation of the MPR Decree No. IV/MPR/1983 concerning Referendum, MPR Decree No. XIV/MPR/1998 concerning Amendment and Addition of MPR Decree No. 111/MPR/1998 concerning General Elections and MPR Decree No. XVIII/MPR/1998 concerning Revocation of MPR Decree No. 11/MPR/1998 concerning P4 (guidelines to understanding and application of the principles of Pancasila) and Decree on the Establishment of Pancasila as the Basic Principle of the State.

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