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The policy and strategy of manpower in the period of Development Reform Cabinet in 1998/1999 is based on the economic condition that leads toward the openness, globalization and free competition era which demand business activities to able to compete in free market. Besides, the employment opportunity will be influenced by the development of technology and information that requires the improvement of efficiency and productivity, and also the tendency of organization change to become more simple with the impact on manpower requirement.

Meanwhile, the manpower policy is also influenced by monetary crisis which is followed by economic crisis. Such condition urges the arrangement of the strategy for Social Safety Net (JPS) directed to overcome monetary-economic crisis especially in relating with manpower aspects including expansion of work opportunity, and the development of small and medium-scale business and cooperative to empower people's economy which in turn will create employment opportunity.

Field of Training

The System of training has been changed from supply driven to demand orientation. Formerly, training programs were organized at Labor Training Centers/Labor Training Courses (BLK/LLK) that was based on the public interest but not all of the trainees absorbed at a real work market because the training organized did not refer to work market demand. To overcome this problem, the reformation of training is implemented on the basis of training orientation toward the real work market demand (demand driven).

To reform the BLK methods, the typology of BLK/LLK which formerly had only three types: BLK type A, BLK type B, and LLK, which all of the types had the same characteristics, have been changed to be BLK on Instructors and Development, BLK on Industry, Special BLK, BLK on small and medium-scale business, LLK on Industrial/Small and Medium-Scale Business. Today, the vocational education being implemented in respective BLK/LLK adapted to the region's potential.

Besides, subsidy program is one of the penetrations to overcome the economic crisis in Indonesia, especially in dealing with unemployment. Subsidy program is intended for the third party who has an access and meet the requirement to organize manpower training and to distribute its trainees directly both in the country and abroad. During fiscal year of 1998/1999, 1,646 person have been trained through subsidy program. Those trainees were work seekers and dismissed employees, and they have been distributed to:

1)  660 persons dispatched abroad such as Kuwait and Taiwan

2)  450 persons have attended training on productivity improvement

3)  441 persons employed on Indonesia's companies such as PT. Caltex Riau, PT. ALBORG, Kopasindo Jakarta, CV. Jati Anom, UD. Sannio and PT. Davanto.

4)  95 persons employed in Depo Warung JK Cooperative

Apprenticeship program abroad in cooperation with IMM Japan for the first stage to fourth stage (until the end of March 1999) have dispatched 10,130 persons. 3,192 of participants have finished their program and returned to Indonesia who 989 person of them have been working in 142 companies with the estimate foreign exchange revenue amounting to Rp-373,942,800,000.

Home-Industry, also offer job-opportunity

Activities at Employees training center

Planning and Development of Manpower

In the field of Planning and Development of Manpower, the perfection of plans on manpower has been taken through the development of adequate information system of manpower comprising of principle revision, methods, assumption, and work market signal, as well as establishment of integrated database and improvement of instruments/information networking system (home page, internet, and intranet). Sharpening of Research on Manpower matters; the Research on manpower utilized as a complement in composing the policy relating to the manpower matters and planning of manpower implemented through a comprehensive identification of problems solution. Enhancing the Hygienic and Health (Hyperkes) and work safety services to Company; to increase the achievements of Hyperkes and work safety services in facing the progress of Science and Technology in the field of industry which will implement ISO-14,000 and 18,000, the guidance for Hyperkes laboratory is also improved, and the institutional building has also been developed professionally.

Planning and Information of Manpower have been implemented through: Unemployment Management Study, Sectoral Monitoring of Job Opportunity, Publication of Information Relating to Manpower, Guidance on Manpower Analysis, and Establishment of Manpowel Database.

Research activities in fiscal year 1998/1999 consisted of among other: Empowerment of Small-Scale Enterprises, Overcoming of laid off Employment, Work Opportunity for Women, the Change of Demand on Employment according to Position Class and the Field of Job, Socialization of the Programs for the Management of Unemployment as the impact of Economic Crisis, 21'h Century Leadership Training, APEC-HRD Working Group Network for Economic Development Management (NEDM).

In the field of Work Health and Safety, the following activities have been undertaken:

1. Tests and Measurements;

2. Inspection on Work Environment and Work Health factors;

3. Education and Training on Occupational Health and Work Safety;

4. Installation of Hyperkes (Occupational Health) Laboratory Equipment and KK/Q Project covering II cases in the Center and 15 BLK.

Placement of Manpower

The prominent achievements in placement of employment during the first year of Reformation Cabinet are among others: 2,695 persons on Self-employed Professionals program (TKPMP), 1,877 persons on Skilled and Self-Employed (TKMT), 8,945 persons on Effective Applied Technology, and 1,470 persons on Labor Intensive Program (PKSPK). Meanwhile, the Placement of Manpower in the country implemented through Inter-Regional Manpower Placement System (AKAD) which have employed 45,896 persons in plantation, forestry, and industrial sectors, and 16,350 persons have dispatched to 24 provinces except Timor-Timur, Jakarta Special Capital City, and Yogyakarta Special Territory. In addition, 384,388 persons have been placed through the Local Manpower Placement Program (AKL) and 450 persons of disabled employees have also been placed.

Placement of Indonesian Manpower abroad in 1998/1999 recruited 411,609 persons which have contributed foreign exchange amounted to US$1,242,486,087.00 Placement of unemployed which is carried out through Productive Economic Institution method with associate pattern and placement and also self-business methods have absorbed 69,340 persons (100%) of which 24,502 persons are women.

Supervision and Protection of Manpower

In the field of Control and Protection of Manpower, some steps have been adopted, such as: Ratification of ILO Convention No. 87 of 1948 with Government Regulation No. 83 of 1998 on the Freedom of Association and Protection for Rights to have Organization; New policy on Minimum Wage which regulates not only Regional Minimum Wage but also Regional Sectoral Minimum Wage based on KLUI Classification;  Establishment of Regional Sector Minimum Wage; Enhancement of Employee's Welfare; Case Settlement; Work Safety and Health; Work Norms.

As follow-up to ILO Ratification on Registration of Labor Organizations, Application Forms and Stipulations on Labor Organizations, there have been composed regulations and stipulations for its implementation.

The government guarantees the community's freedom to establish labor/trade unions. As a result, there have been established 18 labor union federations, 5 labor unions of State-owned Companies, and 7 labor unions of national private companies.

Solution of employment conflicts that were solved on intercession level covered 33 cases, and 20 cases were solved through P4P (national board for employment conflicts) and 46 cases through P4D (regional board for employment conflicts).

The problems relating to Employment Discharges at intercession level amounted to 4,039 cases (involving 9,837 workers), of which 1,439 cases (involving 3,015 workers) have been solved through an agreement. 853 cases (involving 1.351 workers) have been solved through P4D and one case (involving 12 workers) has been solved through P4P. Individual discharge cases served by P4P amounted to 1,283 cases (involving 2,004 workers), and 1,133 cases (involving 1,643 workers' have been solved.


With regard to the vision of the Ministry of State of Women's Role in the Reform Development Cabinet, which is "Women as the Nation's Pillar," efforts to improve the role of women is made with the morality approach. This approach is based on Indonesia's political aspiration that is formulated by Decree No. X/MPR/1998 concerning the Principle of Reform Development in the framework of maintaining and normalizing the national way of life as the State Guidelines, supported by the spirit, and based on reformation aspirations and demand.

Inspirationally, the "women as a nation's pillar improve their role with morality approach" is the form of the strategic perspective integration about the sidings towards women interests and aspiration work orientation in the process of the "people centered development." The government's mission for women development is to improve women's role as the motivator in the development of the future generation, as the motivator of the society through the organizations where they are involved in, and as the producer and consumer of the women's work contribution as individuals. Another mission is to improve the partnership concept with an equal gender perspective in all aspects of life and development activities.

Based on the vision of women as nation's pillar, the aims of women's role development are:

First, to enhance the women's role in the improvement of national human resources quality and the reformation of the future generation.

Second, to improve and form a healthy, prosperous independent and devout family through social culture reformation with equal gender concept; to improve the women and woman organizations and other community organizations to expand and continue their activities and contributions in the economic, political, legal and social culture fields of the national development.

The targets of women's role development are the improvement of women education in the spiritual, intellectual and practical aspects; the improvement of the women, children and young women's health standard to enable the women to actively participate in the development; expansion of the women's access to development resources an a more active role in the society; and realization of equal rights in regard to gender in the national development.

Other targets are to eliminate any form of violence against women (domestically, socially, and nationally) as a part of the elimination of discrimination against women, based on the national "Zero Tolerance Policy" which means violence would never be tolerated however slim; to improve the respect toward the women status, and the protection and fulfillment of women's right, including reproduction rights, support for the progress of women and the women's active role in the various aspects of family, the social and national way of life.

Another target is to improve the role of the formal and non-formal social institutions and to improve the public service institutions that support women's efforts in development toward the creation of the civil society.

The policy of a national Basic Five Point Agenda for the development of the women's role has been formulated to reach the aims and targets.

Firstly, the empowerment of women in three strategic fields covering the integrated education (spiritual, intellectual and practical), the child, young women, and women's health, increase of access towards development resources.

Secondly, create equal rights in regard to gender by three approaches which are increasing the capability of women in development (WID); integrating and bringing the women in the mainstream of the gender and national development (GAD) and encouraging the women towards partaking in a multi-role in the development (WAD).

Thirdly, the elimination of violence against women; fourthly respect towards women's dignity and the rights of women and fiftly the empowerment of institutions managing women development and the follow up activities.

Following are the three main strategies to realize the above policy:

First, strengthen the commitment of related departments and institutions, business and private communities, social organizations on the central, provincial and grass-root levels in improving the women's role by creating various joint networks and functional partnerships.

Secondly, improve the integrated program, whether that for the woman development or the main program of sectors which have committed to involve women in the process of planning, implementation and control to create equal partnership in regard to gender.

Thirdly, increase the awareness of decision makers, planners, in the bureaucracy, the legislative, executive, judicative institutions and the community leaders on the various levels towards equal rights in regard to gender.

Referring to national development policy as formulated in MPR Decree No. X/MPR/1998 concerning the "Principles of Development Reform to save and normalize national way of life as the State Guidelines," and the aspiration, spirit and demand for reformation, a five point principle agenda and three main strategies was designed on the women's role development in meeting the third millennium. It was translated into several national programs that focus on aspects regarding women's role development and the improvement of the human rights of the women.

In the economic field, prominent achievements were made through efforts to improve the women's business potentials through the involvement of small business managed by women in the People's Economic Post and the Cooperatives. Other efforts in the economic field are the integration of women productive economic network in the form of social safety net by expanding cooperation in the various sectors.

In the political field, reform steps are emphasized on effort to promote women's rights. The right to participate in politics is carried out by way of lobbying with leaders of political parties to increase women's contribution in the legislature. Leadership trainings are made available for enhancement of the individual self-esteem of women. Efforts are also made for the improvement of the role of women in decision making in the various aspects of life and development.

In the field of law steps are taken to prevent and handle violence against women, create equal rights and eliminate gender discriminations. In the religious and socio-cultural field, reform steps are emphasized on character development of the future generation and develop the standards of morality in the society to strengthen character resilience especially in facing the current crisis, through programs and activities of morality movement mass education, and improvement of family welfare.

Prominent achievements of the Reform Development Cabinet in the development of the women's role include the establishment of Women's Role Affairs Bureau in cooperation with related government institutions, carry out the social campaign in the framework of introducing morality movement to the provinces and coordinate the Guidance for Families with Children Under Five Movement (BKB).

Other prominent achievements are the expansion of Young Women Movement to reach the grassroots by involving the effective community organizations and other women organizations: organizing "Meet the 1,000 Profiles of the Indonesian Woman" attended by 700 successful women on the national, regional, and international level, and women figures of all professions.

The National Action Program to Solve Violence against Women named "Kata Bunga" (abbreviated from buka mata-buka telinga = open eyes, open ears), and empower the Effective Community Organization and organizations which are integrated in the Board of Women Organizations Cooperation (BKOW).

In the meantime a more transparent communication has been established with the Women Solidarity, NGOs with consideration for women, the Effective Community Organization (OKE), Congress of the Indonesian Women (KOWANI) and other community organizations including professional women groups in effort to socialize the programs for development of the women's role and to accommodate ideas and suggestions.

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