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In accordance with Act of the Republic of Indonesia No. 15 of 1997 on Transmigration Matters, the purposes of the implementation of transmigration are: to improve the welfare of the transmigrants and neighboring communities, increase and spread equally the development in the region and also strengthen the national unity.

Meanwhile, the targets of the implementation of the transmigration are: to increase capability and productivity of the transmigration community, to develop self-sufficiency and create integration in the area of transmigration so that the economic and socio-cultural efforts will be able to grow well and continuously.

The policy of transmigration development during the current monetary crisis is to give priority on activities to foster resettled transmigrants by way of involving transmigrants in labor intensive work programs. In addition, activities such as operation special market and special operation in education and health are also carried out.

For a period of one year (May 22,1998 to 1999) of the Development Reform Cabinet which almost coincides with fiscal year 1998/1999 (April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999). the government has succeeded in taking many programs and activities to urge the development of transmigration which covering many fields as mentioned below.

The Economic, Financial and Industrial Field

In spite of budget limitation, the government has succeeded to open 4,696.5 ha of new resettlement areas; 18,192 Ha of new farming areas: 329.12 Km of new roads;  1,113 bridges; 21,330 units of transmigrant housing and family lavatories with public facilities.

To increase the accessibility of transmigration settlement units to the market in the surroundings, 608.65 Km roads has been rehabilitated and asphalted and 341.50 m bridges constructed with iron pipe from Pertamiria the State-owned Oil Company.

Five Transmigration Resettlement Units have become Subdistrict Capital Towns which have grown into new economic development centers throughout five District. Thus, the development of transmigration is directing towards the pull factor instead of push factor.

The government has also succeeded to increase the average working capital of Village Cooperative Units from Rp5 million to Rp9 million per unit comprising of 650 Village Cooperative Units of the Transmigration Resettlement Units which are still developing.

To promote self-reliance in the provision of food at the less productive land, since fiscal year 1998/1999, the government has increased efforts by promoting food crop production through partnerships with business enterprises.

The main priority of the development of partnership transmigration pattern is the integrated fisherman/fishpond program. In fiscal year 1998/1999, 200 fishermen families were resettled in Wawonii, Southeast Sulawesi; 400 fishpond transmigrant families were resettled in West Nusa Tenggara; and 50 in Dubiadae, North Sulawesi.

Efforts to increase the production and income of transmigrants in transmigration areas are done through programs of "Gema Palagung" (the Second Crop Planting Program) implemented in 21 provinces. The results of this program are: during planting period AprilSeptember (ASEP), the planted area of soybean reached 21,230.70 ha, harvest area 15,114.41 ha, yielding 13,709.67 tons; rice planted area 43,631.18 ha, harvest area 35,964.47 ha, yielding 63,820.79 tons. During planting time of October-March (OKMAR), the soybean planted area was 18,064.15 ha; harvest area 5,051.12 ha, yielding 4,931.21 tons: the rice planted area was 36,733.28 ha, the harvest area 2,513.40 ha, and the yield was 3,513.39 tons; the planted area of corn was 13,136.50 ha, the harvest area 2,315.30 ha, and the yield was 4,296.97 tons. In the future, Gema Palagung programs will be realized on 100,000 ha virgin land per fiscal year by a joint management with Dharma Niaga, Ltd. and Gemah Ripah Cooperatives.

To increase the production of agriculture that support the food crop pattern, watering with the simple irrigation system has been developed in the Province of South East Sulawesi which will be developed in four other locations. Meanwhile, to boost the production of horticulture in arid areas such as Lembah Palu, Sidera in Central Sulawesi Province, a farming irrigation pipeline have been made available for 200 families.

To introduce agriculture mechanism in the less developed regions such as Irian Jaya Province, during the first phase, farming tools are provided by the government as stimulation effort, to further develop self-supportingly. In the relatively more regions, a credit system and farming tool rentals can be implemented. As a try-out, the development of transmigration through agriculture mechanism will be programed in fiscal year 1999/2000 for 500 families at Senggi, Irian Jay a Province.

For the processing of farming areas and their harvest production as well as the processing of farming areas during post harvest time farming machinaries and tools have been made available such as: Hand Tractor, Four Wheel Tractor, Rice Milling Unit, and Thresher with the manuals and operation instructions.

To help transmigrants obtain Cash Income, the government has developed "Skim" Credit for poultry breeder by providing ten chickens together with egg hatching tools to each poultry breeder family, with a projection that at the end of the year they will earn Rp. 400,000 and the chickens will increase to 70. This program was first introduced in the Province of Riau, followed by other provinces. "Skim" Credit programs through the cooperatives is found relevant and strategic for the economic improvement of the transmigrants. The cooperatives play a very important role in a ways to benefit from "Skim" Credit.

People's Welfare (Kesra)

Children under five (0-4 year) in transmigration areas amount to 88,907 with an infant mortality rate of 47 per 1,000 which is below national infant mortality rate of 58 per 1,000. In the meantime, work opportunities through labor intensive programs have been expanded for 37,450 families in 124 Transmigration Resettlement Units to overcome the impacts of the past extensive dry season and monetary crisis.

For children who have reached school age but do not have any opportunity to attend formal schooling, and for drop-outs and also for illiterate adults, the program of Package A which contains elementary education material have been made available. These programs were launched nationwide on April 29, 1994 in the Transmigration Resettlement Units in Tebing Tinggi, North Sumatera Province and in Tanjung Jabung District, Jambi Province.

In the meantime, to increase food supply for transmigrants, the funding and management of rice provision which was previously handled by the central government, since Fiscal Year 1998/1999 was handed over to the regional governments where the transmigration areas are located.

To help provide food in Transmigration Resettlements effected by the impact of monetary crisis, the government has supplied additional rice for 48,969 families in 165 Transmigration Resettlement Units in 17 provinces in cooperation with the State Minister of Food and Horticulture, the National and Local Logistics Agency, and the Special Market Operation of rice. Guidance and suggestions to consume different varieties of food commodities are also made available in transmigration areas.

To improve the quality of transmigrant housing, a joint program with Prefecture Government Kobe has been established to develop prefabricated housing. In fiscal year 1999/2000 components of 9,500 housing units will be shipped in containers and received in Indonesian harbors. The quantity of pre-fabricated housing units could be increased in the future.

The handing over of Transmigration Resettlement Units to the Regional Government usually takes place at the end of a fiscal year (January/February), but since fiscal year 1998/1999 it is done in August with the aim that the villages could immediately be programmed to obtain aid in the following Presidential Instruction/Regional Budget year.

The Resettlement Unit/village is directly considered a definitive village which is independent and represented on the map with clear borderlines. It was previously required that in order to become a definitive transmigration village it should have a population of 500 families but at present only 300 families would be sufficient especially in the isolated, remote from the neighboring villages or with special considerations from the Regional Government.

Politics and Security (Polkarn)

In the framework of maintaining the unity of the nation, in 1998/1999 the Unity in Diversity Transmigration Resettlement Units were developed in Timika, Iran Jaya Province and Sabulussalam in the Aceh Special Territory each with a population of 100 families. Meanwhile, to anticipate criminalities in the transmigration area villages, every Transmigration Resettlement Unit has formed village units consisting of ten main members for each Unit.

Refugees originating from Sarnbas, Ambon, Kupang and the Province of East Timor resulting from the disturbances in those areas were relocated to West Kalimantan, Buton Island, Maluku, South Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara. As the first step, 100 families of the refugees have been resettled in Southeast Sulawesi and 240 families in Maluku.

The population of scarcely populated islands will continuously be added such as the Natuna Jemaja islands in Riau Archipelago received respectively 1,000 and 185 resettled families, and Simelue island in Aceh, 200 families. Also settlements in border areas such as those in Sota, Irian Jaya; Sanggau in West Kalimantan and Berau in East Kalimantan will be continuously developed.

The National Ishlah Movement (GIN) was established to create good relationship among related elements of the formal and informal leadership in effort to help the newly settled population and to maintain security in those areas, 118 persons have been trained and installed as security personnel.


The aim of judiciary section development is to create a national law system that functions effectively to support law supremacy in every aspect of social, national and statehood existence. Its target is to make necessary reforms on the law to apply democratic values and legal reform principles as extreme values in solving basic problems in the judiciary sector, covering legislation planning, legislating formulating and legal awareness.

The first priority is to implement decrees of the People's Consultative Assembly; the second priority is everything regarding the "letter of intent" between Indonesia and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) relating to mentioned legislation as well as new legal products; the third priority is regarding legislation related to the ratification of international convention on World Trade Organization, especially the Intellectual Property Rights which will be valid in the year 2000. This law would among other things cover the bill of "integrated Circuit" of industrial design, trade confidentiality and circuit variety. The fourth priority is related with the formulation of various bills, which will be taken care of by the oncoming new government, such as the bill on Criminal Code (KUHP), bill on advocacy, and others, chiefly relating to Human Resources and the Free Trade.

Law Apparatus Improvement

For the improvement of the law apparatus, activities were made to improve the organization and management of the Ministry of Justice on the national level, and establish the Academy of Immigration (Diploma III Program), enhance law services regarding immigration, Intellectual Property Rights and Legal Services, formulate Career Development Pattern for the Personnel of the Ministry of Justice; improve the system to monitor, control and supervise aliens; investigate and take measures on illegal immigrants and immigrant permit abuses; formulate operational directives and technical directives concerning guidance cooperation and counseling on correctional guidance toward inmates: arrangements of operational directives and technical directives on the execution of authority, duty and responsibility regarding prisoners; structural education and training of the Middle Administrative Leadership School (SPAMEN) and Higher Administrative Leadership School (SPAMA); judge candidate training, etc.

Enhancement of Law-Conscious Community

Activities that have been executed are: direct and indirect law counseling; establishing of law-abiding families; meetings on law obedience; evaluating and analyzing law counseling; technical guidance on law counseling; legal aid services through legal aids institutes.

Improvement of Infrastructure and Means

Activities to improve infrastructure and means cover rehabilitation/renovation of immigration offices, correctional institutions, prisons, correctional halls, and regional office buildings; expansion of business court buildings in Central Jakarta and Ujung Pandang, improvement of information and management system of the Ministry of Justice (each of the Primary Unit); facilitating functional investment in the court, immigration and correctional halls: procurement of cell wagons.

From the' aforementioned activities, following prominent achievements are worth noting: (a) Law no. 4 of 1998 on Approval of Government Regulation in lieu of Law on Bankruptcy; (b) Law no. 9 of 1998 on Freedom of Expression in Public; (c) Law of 1998 on Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and Australia regarding Cooperation on Penal Issues; (d) Law no:29 of 1999 on Approval of the 1965 International Convention on the Abolishment of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; (e) Law no: 26 of 1999 on the Revoke of Law no 11/PNPS/1963 regarding Anti Subversive Activities; (f) Law no: 27 of 1999 on Amendment of the Criminal Code in Connection with Crime Against State Security; and (g) Law no: 28 of 1999 on Clean Governance, Free from Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism.

Other achievements are the issuance of Presidential Decree no: 188 on Procedures for the Preparation of Bills; formulation of 23 bills and 7 bills on Government Regulations; establishment of the new organization and management of the Ministry of Justice with Minister of Justice Decree No: M 03 PR 07.10- 1999 of March 26, 1999; improvement of the Information and Documentary Network System of Law at the national and regional offices (among others giving access to a law and regulation data base by CD-ROM and the internet); improving and enhancing the Residence Identification Letter at each Prime Unit. Especially in the immigration field, preparations are being made to issue the SIMKIM (Residence Identification Letters and Cards) throughout all immigration offices in Indonesia and its representative offices abroad; facilities are granted for services regarding Intellectual Property Rights (preparations for decentralizing proposals through Regional Offices of the Ministry). Another service of the immigration office is the easier procedure to obtain visa by elderly foreigners. The legal services provides easier procedure for permits to establish limited corporations on foreign capital investment, the Go Public Limited Corporations, the Limited Corporations in the framework of Privatization. As to the judiciary services procedures have been simplified regarding legal aid fund granting, registration of the 141 political parties for the General Elections, release of 199 political detainees and political prisoners. With regard to human rights, Xanana Gusmao of East Timor was moved to a special correctional institution; the National Legislation Program was formulated; Pengayoman PO Box 4545 was made available to involve the people in the national control activities.

Law Enforcement

Based on the present problems in relation to efforts regarding legal reform, the main law enforcement policies are among others:

1.  Consistently refer to the goal and basis of the founding of the State in accordance with the State ideals and Legal ideals as stated in the preamble of the 1945 Constitution.

2.  Consistently refer to the Indonesian Archipelagic Outlook to guarantee the existence and unity of the nation, and the National Outlook as an effort to strengthen the unity and the Unity in Diversity outlook in effort to guarantee the preservation of culture and the variety of communities in the Republic of Indonesia.

To exercise law enforcement, specifically to eradicate corruption, collusion, and nepotism, the office of the Attorney General works by the motto of "Fast, Concise and Thorough".

In June 1998, the Attorney General launched a Corruption Eradication Movement and instructed all Heads of High Attorney Office throughout the country to eradicate corruption in the respective jurisdictions through PO Box 777 to enable the people's participation to report on any possible corruption practices.

A program to develop a Law Obedient Society has been carried out to increase the people's awareness, including that of the state apparatuses, organizations and prominent leaders. In 1998-999, education information on law has been carried out in  1,316 villages throughout the country.

Banned Printed Material

During 1998-1999, by Attorney General Degree number KEP034/JA/04/1998 of April 22, 1998, a ban was ordered against circulation of a book by Soebadyo Sastrosatomo titled "Politik Dosomuko Rezim Orde Baru" (The Ten-Face-Politics by the New Order Regime). On the other hand seven printed material, which were previously banned, were released for circulation, to meet reformation demand.

General Cases in Criminal Court

During fiscal year 1998-1999, general cases in criminal court covered the handling of 121,050 reports about police investigations which led to the first phase of 99, 827 cases. As the follow up of the reports, 63,520 cases were received comprising 60,641 being under process, 2,080 settled by the Court, and 787 unfinished cases.

Special Cases in Criminal Court

During the period of April 1. 1997-March 31, 1998. throughout Indonesia, the following have been carried out:

1. Questioning:  219 cases

2. Investigation:  324 cases

3. Prosecution:  185 cases

An amount of Rp.4.614.014.355.00 (four billion, six hundred and fourteen million, fourteen thousand, three hundred and fifty five Rupiahs) have been secured from the total State financial loss of Rp.621.770.648.255.00 (six hundred and twenty one billion, seven hundred and seventy million, six hundred and forty eight thousand. two hundred and fifty five Rupiahs).

From the special cases in the criminal court, Rp.76.323.026.583.79 (seventy six billion, three hundred and twenty three million, twenty six thousand, five liundred eighty three Rupiahs and seventy nine cents) have been secured from the total State financial loss of Rp. 7.210.340.203.299. 19 (seven trillion, two hundred and ten billion, three hundred and forty million, two hundred and three thousand, two hundred ninety nine Rupiahs and nineteen cents).

From the Civil Court and State Administrative Court, until April 1999. a large number of money and asset have been secured. amounting to Rp. 76.635.497.699.581.46 (seventy six trillion, six hundred and thirty five billion, four hundred and ninety seven million. six hundred and ninety nine thousand, five hundred eighty one Rupiahs and forty six cents) and US$ 5,600.000.00 (five million and six hundred thousand US Dollars), together with 250.981.835 m2 of  land, buildings, etc.

State wealth in foreign countries which have been secured until April  1999.  covers  three  cases  of  the  first  level  involving USS325,000,000.00 (three hundred and twenty five million US Dollars) and one case on the appeal level involving US$25.000,000.00 (twenty five million US Dollars).

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