In effort to improve the quality of human resources, development of the education
sector which plays an important role is of high priority in the national development.
The Guidelines of State Policy underline that education is a cultural process to
raise the values and dignity of mankind. Education lasts alifetime, and it takes within the
family, the society and in schools. Therefore, education is a mutual responsibility of the
family, the society and the government.
The emphasis of education development in Repelita V (The First Five-Year
Development Plan) was more on the quality improvement of every level and type of
education without putting aside the expansion of educational opportunity especially at
the junior high school level in anticipation of the nine-year compulsory education.
National education as a vehicle for the advancement of science and technology is
enriched with moral values, culture and humanity to raise the value and dignity of
mankind. That is why teaching about Pancasila and religions are continuously carried out
in every level and type of education, starting from kindergarten to higher education in
public as well as private schools.
Educational development during PJP I (First Long-Term Development) had been
quite successful considering that at present more people have access to education
At the end of Repelita V, (1993/94) crude number participation (APK) of pupils
for the primary schools reached 110% compared to 68.7% of that in 1968. In the same
period the APK for junior high schools has increased to 43.4% senior high schools 30.3%
and for higher education institutes 9.5% compared to 16.9%, 8.6% and 1.6% respectively
in 1968. At the same time, the number of primary schools pupils reached about 29.2
million from around 12.3 million in 1968, that of the junior high schools 5.7 million from
1.1 million, senior high schools students 3.8 million from 482 thousand and the number
of those pursuing higher education 2 million from 156 thousand.
The number of public and private vocational and technical senior high schools
have been and are being expanded throughout the provinces in order to meet the demands
of skilled manpower, and to support the development in the business and industrial
fields. The number of vocational and technical senior high school students increased to
more than 1.36 million at the end of Repelita V. At the same time, there were 20 public
higher education institutions carrying out polytechnical programs.
The quality of teachers in elementary schools has been also improving. At the end
of Repelita V, most of the primary school teachers were in the possession of Diploma 2,
those of the junior high school hold Diploma D3, teachers of he senior high school had
bachelor degree and professor of higher education institutions had Master and Ph.D.
The development of national culture as a whole has encouraged national spirit to
develop culture with the archipelagic outlook.
During PJP I, libraries were built until the villages throughout the country. There
were 200 mobile libraries, 300 district libraries, more than 6,400 public libraries on sub-
district/village levels and about 17,500 school libraries made available. At the same time,
in effort to preserve archaeological heritage, lost of restoration work were carried out on
temples in 59 locations, cemeteries in 73 locations, 10 archaeological sites, 26 fortresses,
20 shrines, 73 castles and on traditional houses in 33 locations.
DEVELOPMENT OF PRE SCHOOL EDUCATION
During Repelita V, the numbers of kindergartens had been increasing throughout
villages with the initiative and active participation of the community. In 1993/94, 61
kindergartens pilot projects were established throughout the 27 provinces.
DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS
In the beginning of PJP I, the ratio of Primary school and Islamic Elementary
School students was only 41.4% while in 1993/93 it reached more than 100%. Since the
beginning of Repelita V, there has been a visiting teacher program which was firstly
introduced in Riau in effort to provide education at elementary level to the 7-12 age
group in remote areas and isles.
With the realization of the SD Inpress (funds especially allocated by a particular
presidential instruction for building schools) programs, 699 new school buildings and
1,600 new classroom were made available in 1993/94. During the 5 years of Repelita V,
2,656 new school buildings and 5,450 new classroom were built. Thus since the time this
program was carried out in 1973/74 until the end of PJP I, 149,300 new school buildings
were built and 162,200 new classrooms were made available in almost each village of the
In 1993/94, 24,000 school buildings (including public and private primary schools
and private Islamic elementary schools) were rehabilitated. During Repelita V 120,900
schools buildings were built and 377,000 throughout the PJP I. Among these schools
buildings, some have been renovated more than once.
More than 14.8 million text books and 22.1 million references books were made
available and distributed in 1993/94. Compared with the amount in 1993/94, there is an
increase of about 1.6 million and 400,000. During Repelita V, 67.1 million reference
books and 41.1 million text books had been made available, and in PJP I the amount
reached 978.7 million books, consisting of 667.5 million text books and 311.2 million
DEVELOPMENT OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Significant attention has been given to the development of junior high schools to
improve the quality and expand the educational opportunity to prepare for the nine-year
compulsory education. 1993/94, 2.15 million primary schools graduates (not included
those from Islamic junior high school) or 56.1 of the total number continued their studies
in junior high schools. School facilities were expanded and 1,400 new junior high school
buildings and 9,400 new classrooms were built during Repelita V.
To give opportunity to children who were incapable to go to public junior high
school, the Government introduced the “open junior high school”. In 1993/94 there were
26 additional junior high schools made available in 25 provinces so that in Repelita V
there were 59 “open junior high school” in 26 provinces.
Also in 1993/94, 15.6 million text books and 1.5 million reference books for
secondary schools were made available and distributed. During Repelita V, 28.2 million
text books and 3.5 million reference books were made available, which means that in
effort to improve the quality of junior high school, the Government had distributed a total
of 205.7 million school books (190.7 million text book and 15 million reference books)
during PJP I.
DEVELOPMENT OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
In 1993/94, the number of new students in the senior high schools and vocational
and technical schools (not included the Islamic senior high schools) reached 1.34 million.
This amount shows a slight increase compared to the 1.33 million of the previous
academic year which was in accordance with the increase of junior high school graduates
from 1.61 million to 1.63 million. Thus, the ratio of the number of newly admitted
students in the senior high school against that of the junior high school graduates has
increased from 82.1% to 82.3%. This is almost similar compared to the amount at the
end of Repelita IV, but it shows very much increase when compared to that in 1968
which was only 35.3%. The senior high school education has shown significant progress,
with the APK of 8.6% (not including Islamic senior high schools). In 1968 there were
only 482,000 students and 100,00 graduates, while at the end of Repelita V the APK was
30.3% with 3.76 million students and 1.1 million graduates (11 times that of early PJP
To make education opportunity more attainable, new school buildings and new
classroom have been built. In 1993/94, 83 new school buildings and 895 new classrooms
were established, thus during Repelita V, 540 new school buildings and 3,936 new
classrooms were built. This is not as many as those built in the previous year because in
academic year 1993/94 the establishment of school buildings and classroom emphasized
on establishing 235 science laboratories, 90 workshops, 224 libraries, and rehabilitating
192 school buildings. Also during this academic year, about 1000 art and sport
equipment were made available along with 4000 mathematics teaching aid devices and
3000 laboratory instruments for the teaching of science. Cumulatively during PJP I, since
the second year, 1343 new school buildings and 12,254 new classrooms were
The development of vocational and technical senior high schools has shown
tremendous progress with 1,178 million pupils at the end of Repelita IV. This number
increased from 1,283 million in academic year 1993/94 since the accommodation to
study at vocational and technical senior high school expanded At the end of Repelita IV,
there were 2,567 public and private vocational and technical schools. This increased to
3,403 in academic year 1992/93 and 3,685 in 1993/94.
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION
There were 254 universities (55 state universities including religion higher
education and 199 private universities) at the beginning of PJP I. At the end of fourth
Repelita they became 849 (63 public and 768 private) universities, and at the end of
Repelita V the number of higher education institute increased especially that of the
private universities, grew to more than 1,000.
The number of secondary school graduates who continued studies to higher
education was increasing rapidly during PJP I (the ration of graduates who continued
studies was only 25.7% in 1968). During this period, the number of university students
increased 13 times from 156,000 at the beginning of PJP I to 2 million at the end of
Repelita V (the fifth year of PJP I). With the increase of university students the APK for
higher education or ratio between the number of university students and 19-24 age group
of the population reached 9.5% in academic year 1992/93 when compared to the 8.5% in
academic year 1988/89. There were about 163,900 higher education graduates in
academic year 1988/89, and this number rose to 199,200 in academic year 1993/94
namely from 177,800 in the previous academic year.
To further expand the accomodation capacity of the higher education institutes,
during academic year 1993/94, 223,300 sq.m of new classrooms and other facilities were
built. This is an expansion of 48,500 sq.m or 28% from 174,800 sq.m in 1992/93. Also
69,600 sq.m of new laboratory facilities were built which means an expansion of 3,200
sq.m from 1992/93, and 20,400 sq.m new library rooms were added.
There were 88,700 higher education professors in 1993/93 with a ration of one
professor for every 23 university students in academic year 1993/94. These number are
higher than those of the previous academic year which are 59,500 professors and a ratio
of 1 : 28. During 1993/94, 131,5000 textbooks and reference books with 2,400 laboratory
instruments were made available.
During Repelita V, around 550 to 6,400 students obtained scholarships. In
1993/94 6,400 received Rp 600,000 each. This was an increase of 1,250 students when
compared to the 5,150 in 1992.93.
Research activities have also increased and there were 1,500 titles funded by the
Government during 1993/94.
In effort to improve the quality of private universities, accreditation to private
universities were being ameliorated in academic year 1993/94.
DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL WORKERS
To improve the quality of primary school teachers the education systems
introduced long distance Diploma 2 equivalent programs using modules combined with
the periodic tutorial activities. Cumulatively, during Repelita V 125,000 and 32,000
teachers accomplished Diploma 2 and Diploma 3 equivalent programs respectively.
Also 52,800 personnel attended training programs a upgrading courses on non-
formal education in 1993/94. At the same time, 15,000 went on job training which is
essential increase when compared to 6,000 of the previous year.
Besides non formal education programs carried out by the government there were
also skills training programs run by the people on sewing, driving, typing, computer
handling, mechanic works, beauty care, etc.
During 1992/93, 19,500 skills training programs were promoted which rose to
19,700 in the following year. The programs included managerial and upgrading courses
to improve the quality of teachers and instructors.
Education and training have been made available for educational workers to
improve their knowledge and skills since the success and the quality of education of the
people largely depends on skilled workers.
In 1992/93, 22,000 education workers had education and training opportunity and
in 1993/94 the participants grew to 53,000 which is more than twice of the previous year.
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