In effort to improve the quality of human resources, development of the education sector which plays an important role is of high priority in the national development.

The Guidelines of State Policy underline that education is a cultural process to raise the values and dignity of mankind. Education lasts alifetime, and it takes within the family, the society and in schools. Therefore, education is a mutual responsibility of the family, the society and the government.

The emphasis of education development in Repelita V (The First Five-Year Development Plan) was more on the quality improvement of every level and type of education without putting aside the expansion of educational opportunity especially at the junior high school level in anticipation of the nine-year compulsory education.

National education as a vehicle for the advancement of science and technology is enriched with moral values, culture and humanity to raise the value and dignity of mankind. That is why teaching about Pancasila and religions are continuously carried out in every level and type of education, starting from kindergarten to higher education in public as well as private schools.

Educational development during PJP I (First Long-Term Development) had been quite successful considering that at present more people have access to education opportunities.

At the end of Repelita V, (1993/94) crude number participation (APK) of pupils for the primary schools reached 110% compared to 68.7% of that in 1968. In the same period the APK for junior high schools has increased to 43.4% senior high schools 30.3% and for higher education institutes 9.5% compared to 16.9%, 8.6% and 1.6% respectively in 1968. At the same time, the number of primary schools pupils reached about 29.2 million from around 12.3 million in 1968, that of the junior high schools 5.7 million from 1.1 million, senior high schools students 3.8 million from 482 thousand and the number of those pursuing higher education 2 million from 156 thousand.

The number of public and private vocational and technical senior high schools have been and are being expanded throughout the provinces in order to meet the demands of skilled manpower, and to support the development in the business and industrial fields. The number of vocational and technical senior high school students increased to more than 1.36 million at the end of Repelita V. At the same time, there were 20 public higher education institutions carrying out polytechnical programs.

The quality of teachers in elementary schools has been also improving. At the end of Repelita V, most of the primary school teachers were in the possession of Diploma 2, those of the junior high school hold Diploma D3, teachers of he senior high school had bachelor degree and professor of higher education institutions had Master and Ph.D. degrees.

The development of national culture as a whole has encouraged national spirit to develop culture with the archipelagic outlook.

During PJP I, libraries were built until the villages throughout the country. There were 200 mobile libraries, 300 district libraries, more than 6,400 public libraries on sub- district/village levels and about 17,500 school libraries made available. At the same time, in effort to preserve archaeological heritage, lost of restoration work were carried out on temples in 59 locations, cemeteries in 73 locations, 10 archaeological sites, 26 fortresses, 20 shrines, 73 castles and on traditional houses in 33 locations.


During Repelita V, the numbers of kindergartens had been increasing throughout villages with the initiative and active participation of the community. In 1993/94, 61 kindergartens pilot projects were established throughout the 27 provinces.


In the beginning of PJP I, the ratio of Primary school and Islamic Elementary School students was only 41.4% while in 1993/93 it reached more than 100%. Since the beginning of Repelita V, there has been a visiting teacher program which was firstly introduced in Riau in effort to provide education at elementary level to the 7-12 age group in remote areas and isles.

With the realization of the SD Inpress (funds especially allocated by a particular presidential instruction for building schools) programs, 699 new school buildings and 1,600 new classroom were made available in 1993/94. During the 5 years of Repelita V, 2,656 new school buildings and 5,450 new classroom were built. Thus since the time this program was carried out in 1973/74 until the end of PJP I, 149,300 new school buildings were built and 162,200 new classrooms were made available in almost each village of the country.

In 1993/94, 24,000 school buildings (including public and private primary schools and private Islamic elementary schools) were rehabilitated. During Repelita V 120,900 schools buildings were built and 377,000 throughout the PJP I. Among these schools buildings, some have been renovated more than once.

More than 14.8 million text books and 22.1 million references books were made available and distributed in 1993/94. Compared with the amount in 1993/94, there is an increase of about 1.6 million and 400,000. During Repelita V, 67.1 million reference books and 41.1 million text books had been made available, and in PJP I the amount reached 978.7 million books, consisting of 667.5 million text books and 311.2 million references books.


Significant attention has been given to the development of junior high schools to improve the quality and expand the educational opportunity to prepare for the nine-year compulsory education. 1993/94, 2.15 million primary schools graduates (not included those from Islamic junior high school) or 56.1 of the total number continued their studies in junior high schools. School facilities were expanded and 1,400 new junior high school buildings and 9,400 new classrooms were built during Repelita V.

To give opportunity to children who were incapable to go to public junior high school, the Government introduced the “open junior high school”. In 1993/94 there were 26 additional junior high schools made available in 25 provinces so that in Repelita V there were 59 “open junior high school” in 26 provinces.

Also in 1993/94, 15.6 million text books and 1.5 million reference books for secondary schools were made available and distributed. During Repelita V, 28.2 million text books and 3.5 million reference books were made available, which means that in effort to improve the quality of junior high school, the Government had distributed a total of 205.7 million school books (190.7 million text book and 15 million reference books) during PJP I.


In 1993/94, the number of new students in the senior high schools and vocational and technical schools (not included the Islamic senior high schools) reached 1.34 million. This amount shows a slight increase compared to the 1.33 million of the previous academic year which was in accordance with the increase of junior high school graduates from 1.61 million to 1.63 million. Thus, the ratio of the number of newly admitted students in the senior high school against that of the junior high school graduates has increased from 82.1% to 82.3%. This is almost similar compared to the amount at the end of Repelita IV, but it shows very much increase when compared to that in 1968 which was only 35.3%. The senior high school education has shown significant progress, with the APK of 8.6% (not including Islamic senior high schools). In 1968 there were only 482,000 students and 100,00 graduates, while at the end of Repelita V the APK was 30.3% with 3.76 million students and 1.1 million graduates (11 times that of early PJP I)

To make education opportunity more attainable, new school buildings and new classroom have been built. In 1993/94, 83 new school buildings and 895 new classrooms were established, thus during Repelita V, 540 new school buildings and 3,936 new classrooms were built. This is not as many as those built in the previous year because in academic year 1993/94 the establishment of school buildings and classroom emphasized on establishing 235 science laboratories, 90 workshops, 224 libraries, and rehabilitating 192 school buildings. Also during this academic year, about 1000 art and sport equipment were made available along with 4000 mathematics teaching aid devices and 3000 laboratory instruments for the teaching of science. Cumulatively during PJP I, since the second year, 1343 new school buildings and 12,254 new classrooms were constructed.

The development of vocational and technical senior high schools has shown tremendous progress with 1,178 million pupils at the end of Repelita IV. This number increased from 1,283 million in academic year 1993/94 since the accommodation to study at vocational and technical senior high school expanded At the end of Repelita IV, there were 2,567 public and private vocational and technical schools. This increased to 3,403 in academic year 1992/93 and 3,685 in 1993/94.


There were 254 universities (55 state universities including religion higher education and 199 private universities) at the beginning of PJP I. At the end of fourth Repelita they became 849 (63 public and 768 private) universities, and at the end of Repelita V the number of higher education institute increased especially that of the private universities, grew to more than 1,000.

The number of secondary school graduates who continued studies to higher education was increasing rapidly during PJP I (the ration of graduates who continued studies was only 25.7% in 1968). During this period, the number of university students increased 13 times from 156,000 at the beginning of PJP I to 2 million at the end of Repelita V (the fifth year of PJP I). With the increase of university students the APK for higher education or ratio between the number of university students and 19-24 age group of the population reached 9.5% in academic year 1992/93 when compared to the 8.5% in academic year 1988/89. There were about 163,900 higher education graduates in academic year 1988/89, and this number rose to 199,200 in academic year 1993/94 namely from 177,800 in the previous academic year.

To further expand the accomodation capacity of the higher education institutes, during academic year 1993/94, 223,300 sq.m of new classrooms and other facilities were built. This is an expansion of 48,500 sq.m or 28% from 174,800 sq.m in 1992/93. Also 69,600 sq.m of new laboratory facilities were built which means an expansion of 3,200 sq.m from 1992/93, and 20,400 sq.m new library rooms were added.

There were 88,700 higher education professors in 1993/93 with a ration of one professor for every 23 university students in academic year 1993/94. These number are higher than those of the previous academic year which are 59,500 professors and a ratio of 1 : 28. During 1993/94, 131,5000 textbooks and reference books with 2,400 laboratory instruments were made available.

During Repelita V, around 550 to 6,400 students obtained scholarships. In 1993/94 6,400 received Rp 600,000 each. This was an increase of 1,250 students when compared to the 5,150 in 1992.93.

Research activities have also increased and there were 1,500 titles funded by the Government during 1993/94.

In effort to improve the quality of private universities, accreditation to private universities were being ameliorated in academic year 1993/94.


To improve the quality of primary school teachers the education systems introduced long distance Diploma 2 equivalent programs using modules combined with the periodic tutorial activities. Cumulatively, during Repelita V 125,000 and 32,000 teachers accomplished Diploma 2 and Diploma 3 equivalent programs respectively.

Also 52,800 personnel attended training programs a upgrading courses on non- formal education in 1993/94. At the same time, 15,000 went on job training which is essential increase when compared to 6,000 of the previous year.

Besides non formal education programs carried out by the government there were also skills training programs run by the people on sewing, driving, typing, computer handling, mechanic works, beauty care, etc.

During 1992/93, 19,500 skills training programs were promoted which rose to 19,700 in the following year. The programs included managerial and upgrading courses to improve the quality of teachers and instructors.

Education and training have been made available for educational workers to improve their knowledge and skills since the success and the quality of education of the people largely depends on skilled workers.

In 1992/93, 22,000 education workers had education and training opportunity and in 1993/94 the participants grew to 53,000 which is more than twice of the previous year.

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