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HIGHLIGHTS ON INDONESIA





HEALTH

In line with the guidelines of State Policy, health development in the Fifth Five Year Development Plan has been carried out through the following programs on : (1) public health services; (2) referential health services; (3) eradication of contagious diseases; (4) nutritive improvement; (5) clean water supply; (6) efforts towards a healthy environment; (7) public health information; (8) control, provision and supervision of food, drugs and the like; (9) education, training and the efficient use of health personnel. The above programs are supported by programs on health physical infrastructure the guidance of the young generation in health development, and the increasing role of women in health development.

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

The program on public health is aimed at improving the health condition of the people by preventing and curing contagious diseases as well as providing basic health services through; increase of health service institutions; bettering the services on maternal and child care (KIA) and dental health, maintaining and enhancing the health of school children and providing mental and laboratory services.

In an effort to evenly distribute health services, and have these reach the family as well, health services have been also provided through Public Health Centers (Puskesmas), Sub-Puskesmas, mobile and floating Puskesmas.

In 1993/94, 140 Puskesmas and 1,387 Sub-Puskesmas were built, and increased to 775 Puskesmas and 7,205 Sub-Puskesmas, up by 112.6% and 99.6% respectively from the target set in Repelita V. Until the end of PJP I (The First Long Term Development Period), 6,954 Puskesmas and 19,977 Sub-Puskesmas (with 3 Sub-Puskesmas for each Puskesmas) had been established.

In 1993/94, 300 housed for doctors and 250 houses for dentists were built, so that there were in the same year 5,200 houses for doctors and 450 houses for dentists.

To provide health services in remote areas, 720 units of mobile Puskesmas have been operated and in 1993/94 there were 6,024 units in 308 villages, an increase from only 170 villages in 1992/93.

The activities of KIA services include : disease prevention, nursing, curing and enhancing the mother’s and child’s health. In 1993/94, 10,319 midwives were trained, and since 1989/90 until 1992/93, 19,712 midwives had been assigned in the villages, being above the target of 18,000 midwives under Repelita V.

15,339 traditional midwives were educated among whom 1,105 had been trained in 1993/94. Complete immunization for infants increased from 89.9% in 1992/93 to 91.1% in 193/94. Also child births handled by trained midwives had increased from 65% to 70% as projected at the end of Repelita V.

To maintain and enhance the standard of the students’ health, the School Health Program (UKS) activities have been carried out from elementary up to high school level (including religious schools). In 1993/94, the number of schools assisted by UKS was 24,218. Further health services in Puskesmas or referential health services in hospitals were given to children with a physical or spiritual disorder, and in 1993/94 there were 567 Puskesmas (4 times than in 1992/93) providing these services.

During Repelita V, 2,07 dentists had been assigned in Puskesmas and hospitals, and in 1993/94 the number was 336. In 1993/94, they were provided with 2,088 sets of dental equipment (increase from 2,238 sets in 1992/93). In the same year dental health services were provided to 113,780 elementary schools, and Village Community Dental Health (UKG-MD) centers were established in 6,336 villages to improve the dental health of the village community.

UKG-MD activities also include the training of UKG-MD cadres. Mental health services were integrated with the health services in 146 Puskesmas and 69 public hospitals in 1993/94.

In 1993/94, rehabilitation had been made to 15 health laboratories (BLK), and 161 units of laboratory equipment were made available. The determination of HIV/AIDS virus by 19 BLK, 39 public hospitals and 149 Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) laboratories during Repelita were handled by 27 BLK, 39 hospitals and 149 PMI laboratories in 1993/94.

REFERENTIAL HEALTH

The program of referential health has been directed towards enhancing the function and quality services in units of referential health starting from hospitals from the D Class, C Class, B Class up to A Class hospitals. Medical specialists have been placed in several hospitals and medical equipment and medicines made available. Hospital operational and maintenance costs increased, and the skill of medical personnel improved.

Until 1993/94, there were 1,673 hospitals with 125,981 beds consisting of 830 public hospitals with 97,197 beds and 843 special hospitals with 28,784 beds. Compared with 1992/93, there were an increase of 29 hospitals with 2,540 beds.

This program has been integrated with the health and referential services in Puskesmas, in cooperation with other related sectors, and the community’s participation.

One of the main programs to lower illness and mortality rate of infants and children under five is immunization with the target of Universal child Immunization (UCI) as projected by the World Summit for Children for the year 2000 which is 80-80- 80. This means that basic immunization activities (vaccination against BCG, DTP, polio and measles) which are carried out at national, provincial and sub-district level have to reach 80% of the total number of infants.

In 1993/94, 91.1% of the infants received complete immunization and at the end of Repelita V immunization activities elevated to about 64.2% compared with those at the end of Repelita V.

Since 2 cases of AIDS and 4 cases HIV were reported as being positive in 1987, then preventive activities of venereal diseases has been intensified. In March 1994, 55 cases of AIDS and 158 cases of positive HIV were reported.

To promote the integration and coordination of AIDS preventive activities in Indonesia, in 1993/94 the cooperation between the Government, NGOs and parties concerned was placed, under the coordination of the Minister-Coordinator for People’s Welfare.

IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITION

In 1993/94, activities towards nutritive improvement program cover : improvement of family nutrition (UPGK), prevention of lack of vitamin A and Iodine (GAKI), prevention of anemia and improvement of food and enhancement of nutritive awareness (SKPG).

At the end of Repelita V, UPGK activities were carried out in 61.7 thousand villages and 245 thousand Posyandu were established. At the end of PJP I (the First Long Term Development Period), GAKI activities were applied to 36.5 million people. During PJP I, 75 million children under five were given vitamin A capsules.

Prevalence of lack of nutrition especially lack of vitamin A, decreased from 1.3% at the beginning of Repelita I to .35% by the end of PJP I. This means that the number of blindness victims and the mortality rate of infants and children under five decreased as well.

Due to success of Indonesia in preventing the lack of vitamin A (especially in eye-cornea disorder prevention of children), in the name of Indonesian people, President Soeharto was awarded with “The Spirit of Helen Keller” trophy from Helen Keller International. The trophy was presented by John Pammer III, Executive Director of Helen Keller International, on Children’s’ Day 1994 at the Presidential Palace in July 1994. The trophy of Helen Keller International is awarded as a token of personal or institutional contribution to fighting blindness.

CLEAN WATER SUPPLY

In 1993/94, various facilities for clean water supply were made available, consisting of 61 water pipe installations, 997 reservoirs to collect rain water, 43 well reservation, 1,235 shallow hand pump wells, 1,451 deep hand pump wells, 2,487 artesian wells, and 6,311 public hydrants.

At the end of PJP I, 38,566 reservoirs to collect rain water, 385,172 shallow hand pump wells and 56,315 deep hand wells were constructed. At that time, clean water supply had reached 80% of the urban areas and 50% of the rural areas.

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

Dissemination of health information in 1993/94 was conveyed by 1.7 million of printed papers, 192 thousand radio broadcasts, 883 television broadcasts and 190,255 times of dissemination of health information by groups.

To intensify the dissemination of health information, training of 827 health information workers at provincial, sub district and Puskesmas level was undertaken in 193/94. The training included health information media training and public health training in hospitals.

In keeping with increased activities of the program on health information carried out with the support of community participation, the number of Posyandu grew from 25,000 units in 1983 to 244,843 at the end of Repelita V.

Increased availability of medicines, that can easily be distributed and are within reach of the people, brought them to make a greater use of generic medicines (OGB). The number of pharmaceutical industries producing these generic medicines increased from 22 to 26 which were manufacturing 167 kinds of the medicines in circulation.

The evaluation and testing of food stuffs, medicines, cosmetic and health equipment were made in 1993/94 to 1,710 kinds of medicines, 20 kinds of traditional medicines, 30,000 kinds of food stuffs and drinks and 2,600 kinds of cosmetic and health equipment. At that time, there were 312 cases of illegal and falsified products and other violations. In order to control the quality of pharmaceutical products, food and health equipment laboratory analyses had been carried out of 39,800 samples.

The efforts to guide and develop intensively the application of production of good medicines were carried out to 91 pharmaceutical industries meaning an increase of two times as compared with that in 1992/93.

At the end of Repelita V, this program had managed to have 98% of the need of national medicines being produced locally, together with greater usage of generic medicines.

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Last Update on 19.05.2002