The population policy is directed toward development of the population as
human resources in order that the national development can be effective and
valuable, while the quality of life is gradually improving. Meanwhile, the
control of population growth is carried out through efforts to lower the
birth and mortality rate, especially that of infants and children. These
efforts in particular have been implemented through family planning programs
which also have the purpose of improving the welfare of mother ad child and
at the same time create a small, happy, and prosperous family.
The crude birth rate declined drastically from 27.3 per 1000 people in 1990
to 24.5 per 1000 in 1993. In the meantime, the fertility rate also declined
from 3.3 per 1000 women of childbearing age in 1990 to 2.87 in 1993.
Several factors including a rising living standard, higher educational level
and improved health services, contributed to the birth rate decline. But the
greatest proportion is attributable to the increasing number of people
participating in family planning, especially the new eligible couples.
Moreover, contraception has become more widespread and effective, making it
easier to plan families; and sterilization of men and women has also become
Postponement of conception in marriages, and a trend towards later marriage
has also become more popular. The available data show that the average age
for marriage rose from 20.0 in 1980 to 21.9 in 1990.
Table 1: Area and Population of Indonesia's Major Islands 1990*
|Island||% Area||Population||% Population||Pop. Dens./sq. mi.|
|1. Java (incl. Madura)||6.89||107,573,749||59.99||814|
|5. Nusa Tenggara||4.61||10,163,854||5.67||115|
|6. Irian Jaya||21.99||1,641,430||0.92 ||4|
According to the statistics, the expectation of life at birth for man was
45.7 years representing a rise of about 15 years since the late 1960's,
compared to 60.7 years fro 1988 and 62.7 for 1990.
The crude death rate in 1988 was 7.9 per 1,000 people against 19.1 per 1,000
in 1993. The infant mortality rate declined from 67 per 1,000 live birth in
1988 to 58 in 1993. Furthermore, the crude death rate had decreased about
45.1% for the period of 1971 - 1990, meaning 2.3% per year.
Causes for the decline in the mortality rate include better nutrition, a
rising standard of living, advances in medical science, growth of medical
facilities, improved health measures, better working conditions, education
in personal hygiene, and small nuclear families.
In 1992, the number of Indonesian citizens living abroad was 261,416. Of
these, 190,586 went to Asian countries, 1,477 to African countries, 24,397
to European countries, 21,612 to American countries and 23,344 to Australian
and other Pacific countries.
Like in many countries, particularly those in the developing world, the city
is always the major attraction for the rural population. This is especially
true where the land no longer offers an effective means to earn a living.
Indonesia is no exception. Over the years, particularly after World War II,
cities have grown rapidly in population, so much so that municipal
governments have not been very successful in coping with the impact of
urbanization. Prevalent are the pressing needs for employment, housing,
transportation and other social requirements.
THE NATIONALITY ACT
Indonesian nationality is governed by Act No. 62 of 1958. It defines an
Indonesian national as a person who, since the beginning of independence on
August 17, 1945, qualifies for citizenship under existing laws.
Further, a person whose mother is an Indonesian national, but whose father's
nationality is unknown or whose father is state-less, shall qualify for
Indonesian citizenship. Also, a person who was born in Indonesia from
unknown parents, or an orphan whose parents are unknown, or a person born in
Indonesia who does not inherit any nationality from his/her parents, shall
qualify for Indonesian citizenship.
A five year old child, who is adopted by foster parents of Indonesian
nationality, shall qualify for Indonesian nationality if the foster parents
apply to a court to legitimize the adoption within one year and are granted
A child born from a legitimate marriage of an Indonesian mother and an alien
father shall, in the event a divorce is granted by the court, qualify for
Indonesian nationality if he/she so decides.
A child born from a legitimate or illegitimate marriage between an alien
father and an Indonesian mother is entitled to become an Indonesian national
if he/she applies to the Minister of Justice, having abandoned his/her alien
nationality according to the law of the foreign country or in accordance
with an agreement concluded between Indonesia and a foreign country. In such
case, a child shall submit the application within a year after reaching the
age of 18.
To obtain Indonesian nationality, aliens must fulfill the following
a. Have reached the age of 21 or over;
b. Were born in Indonesia or have lived in Indonesia continuously for 5
years, or interruptedly for 10 years;
c. Have a fair command of the Indonesian language and knowledge of
Indonesian history, and have never been convicted by a court for a breach of
law or for any act against Indonesia.
d. Have the consent of the wife or husband;
e. Are mentally and physically healthy;
f. Pay a fee of not less than Rp. 500 and not more than Rp. 10,000, which
shall be decided by the court, taking into consideration the applicant's
g. Have a permanent employment;
h. Have no other nationality or have abandoned his/her nationality which is
in conformity with an agreement on dual nationality reached between
Indonesia ad the foreign country.
An alien married woman is not entitled to apply for Indonesian citizenship.
However, Indonesian nationality may be granted to aliens who have proved
meritorious and have served the interest of Indonesia. Such nationality
shall be granted with the approval of the House of Representatives.
An alien wife of an Indonesian national is entitled to Indonesian
citizenship if she so wishes and makes a statement to that effect within a
year of the marriage. This does not apply if the husband has abandoned his
An Indonesian woman married to an alien husband shall lose her Indonesian
nationality if she makes a statement to this effect within a year of her
Indonesian nationality obtained by a husband shall automatically apply to
his wife except where she, after acquiring Indonesian nationality, does not
abandon her alien nationality.
If a person loses his/her Indonesian nationality, his wife/her husband also
loses it, except where both of them are stateless.
A person who has lost his/her Indonesian nationality by marriage can regain
it if the marriage is broken off and the person applies for it. Such an
application shall include a statement of the broken marriage and be
submitted to a court or an Indonesian diplomatic mission abroad.
A child under the age of 18 who is not married and retains his/her kinship
with the father who has not yet acquired Indonesian nationality, qualifies
for Indonesian nationality if he/she lives permanently in Indonesia.
If a widow or widower obtains Indonesian nationality, her/his child shall be
entitled to the same provided that the latter is under 18 years of age and
not married. This also applies to children under 18 and not married, born to
parents who have lost their Indonesian nationality.
LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS
There are about 583 languages and dialects spoken in the archipelago. They
normally belong to the different ethnic groups of the population. Some of
the distinctly different local languages are: Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese,
Javanese, Sasak, Tetum of Timor, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese,
Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, and several Irianese languages. To make the
picture even more colorful, these languages are also spoken in different
THE LINGUA FRANCA
The national language of Indonesia is "Bahasa Indonesia." Originally it was
the Malay language mainly spoken in the Riau islands. In it's spread
throughout the country, its vocabulary and idioms have been enriched by a
great number of local languages. To keep pace with religious, social and
cultural progress, many words and terms have been derived from foreign
languages including Dutch, Chinese, Sanskrit, Arabic, and later, Portuguese.
Although Bahasa Indonesia has become the lingua franca, local languages and
dialects continue to be spoken and will not be abolished.
THE LARGE SCALE MIGRATION
During the Neolithic Period (3000-2000 BC) a large-scale migration of people
took place from the Asian mainland to the south. This migration originated
in Yunan in South China and Tonkin. These people had developed a higher
degree of civilization compared to that of the Wajaks, the indigenous people
of Indonesia. The Wajaks lived a primitive life of food gathering, hunting
and fishing. Of agriculture, they only knew primitive forms of growing sweet
potatoes (Dioscorea esculanta) and the keladi yam (Colocasia antiquorum).
The Sub-Mongolian migrants came down the big rivers of South China in the
direction of the Salween River. This river flows from Tanglha in Tibet into
present-day Myanmar, where the migrants mixed with the Korean people. In
Assam, the newcomers learned rice cultivation in wet fields. Over long
distances and centuries, this process eventually made its way to Indonesia.
Some of the migrants settled in the Mekhong River basin, where they
inter-married with the Mon of present day Thailand and Laos, and with the
Khmer of preset day Kampuchea.
Some of these people went eastwards to Quemoy where they learned maritime
techniques. This enabled them to sail in canoes fitted with outriggers to
the islands of Riukyu and Taiwan in the south Pacific. From there they
crossed the seas to present-day Philippines and to the island chain of
Sangir, Sulawesi, Halmahera, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, Java and Sumatra. In the
end, they went as far as the island of Madagascar, now called Malagasi.
Others sailed along the island of Okinawa to Japan.
The Sub-Mongolian migrants who settled in Indonesia, inter-married with the
Wajaks. With their higher state of civilization, the migrants dominated the
indigenous people. But the Wajaks learned much from them, including the
cultivation of rice, which became the staple food of Indonesia. They also
learned the use of new, quadrangular adzes, and bronze and iron tools. The
migrants even introduced coins.
At a later stage, a wave of Indo-Arian migrants entered Indonesia from India
through the Strait of Malacca and the Java Sea. They inter-married with the
already mixed races in Indonesia.
(Source: Indonesia 1995: An Official Handbook.)
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