Development of transportation and telecommunication is directed towards the effort to accelerate the flow of passengers, goods, services and information as well as to expanding the scope of services both at home and overseas.

Transportation development is also geared towards better national transportation along with increased human resources quality that have been adjusted to economic development, the degree of technological advancement, space layout, preservation of environmental functions and national energy policies.

During Repelita V (1988/89-1993/94) the betterment, of transportation and communication services connecting villages, remote places and islands, transmigration and border areas, was aimed at supporting the even distribution of development yields through the country.


During Repelita V, the attention was focused on the development of roads in production centers and roads connecting these centers to marketing areas. Furthermore, new roads and bridges had also been constructed to open up the remote areas and to support the development of new settlements including transmigration sites.

The implementation of road construction has laid particular stress on the remote and border areas of Easter Indonesia. In 1993/94, 152 km of roads were constructed in Irian Jaya, in Sulawesi 46 km, in Kalimantan 248 km and in Maluku 23 km. Besides, bridges were also built such as the Mamberamo bridge in Irian Jaya and the Barito bridge in Kalimantan.

To sustain the development of land, air and sea transportation, at the end of Repelita V, roads linking main harbors to production as well as distribution centers such as the Tanjung Priok - Pluit toll road in Jakarta and the Semarang outer ringroad in Central Java, were constructed.

Additionally, in order to anticipate city transportation problems caused by the sharp increase of vehicles, especially in Jakarta, and to ease heavy traffic in dense intersections, the Slipi - Sudirman fly-over and Kuningan- Casablanca underpass were recently completed.


In an effort to develop national transportation during Repelita V the system of a one-way traffic flow, and road side parking areas had been made to work and especially for Jakarta passengers’ limited areas had been introduced.

By the end of Repelita V, the number of road transportation facilities increased by 34.9% compared to that in 1988/89. Accordingly, road transportation services along with traffic lights, road surface signs pedestrian crossing lights and centers for examining motor vehicles improved as well.

In keeping with the increasing number of buses, the construction of bus stations has been planned, taking into consideration the matter of location and city planning for the sake of efficiency and effectiveness.


To meet the increasing demand for railway transportation, in 1993/94 various steps were taken including; applying high technology, using the railway tracks efficiently, doubling the tracks in the dense areas and installing electronic sign equipment.

Within the framework of improving public services a number of trains had been added and operated into the system such as the executive class passenger trains, tourist trains, faster freight trains connecting Jakarta to Surabaya while introducing the container transportation system.

Furthermore, light rail transit fly-over tracks linking Jakarta and its satellite towns of Bogor, Bekasi, and Tangerang started to be constructed. About 64.9 km of light rail transit had already been constructed out of the planned total of 144.8 km.


Under Repelita V, the development of river, lake and ferry transportation had integrated into the road and railways transportation system so as to enhance their role in connecting the villages, transmigration and border areas and also the remote islands.

In advancing river, lake and ferry transportation services, in 1993/94 new crossing points were constructed in Kalabahi-Atapupu, Kalabahi- Baranusa, Baranusa-Balauring in eastern Indonesia, Batam-Bintan in Riau, and Bitung-Panaru in North Sulawesi. Up to now, the total number of crossing points is about 54, being served by 57 ships operated by private companies.

On the whole river, lake and ferry transportation services are making fast progress as can be seen by the increase of the total number of passengers, freight and vehicles which grew by 29%, 58% and 46% respectively compared to those in 1988/89. The facilities and infrastructures of these types of transportation including piers and signs improved significantly.


The policy of sea transportation development during Repelita V was aimed at improving sea transportation services to make it capable of reaching the entire country. Besides, the policy was also directed towards the improvement of the capacity of infrasctucture and facilities as well as of the quality of services in both domestic and international liners.

The realization of the policy towards increasing sea port facilities, shipping safety and shipping fleet equipment resulted in the smooth mobility of people, goods and services as well as in the higher competitive edge of export commodities in the international market.

During Repelita V, deregulation concerning licensing and operation, the establishment of shipping companies and on shipping ownership were issued. This brought the total number of ships to increase from 274 to 525 units, or a rise of 91.6% and the capacity of the Nusantara lines fleet to increase to 933,240 DWT in 1994 from 503,490 DWT in 1988/89 an increase of 85.4%.

This increase led to the gradual fusion of local lines into the Nusantara lines since the enforcement of the regulation concerning sea transportation in 1988. As a consequence, the number of local lines in 1994 had declined abruptly by 55.5%.

The policy of people’s or traditional shipping is geared towards providing an opportunity to small-scale enterprises to participate in sea transportation activities especially in inter-island shipping calling at coastal villages, so as to create job opportunities in these regions. Parallel with this traditional people’s shipping “Perla” - race has been held annually, under the sponsorship of the Indonesian Navy, to promote the shipping.

During Repelita V there was an increase in productivity at an average of 36.7% annually as the result of increased efficiency between the national fleet and the capacity of traditional shipping.

Pioneer shipping also plays an important role in connecting the remote and isolated areas, especially in Eastern Indonesia with other parts of the country. In 1993/94, there were 30 units of pioneer ships operating throughout the archipelago.

To intensify the exploration and production activities of the industrial and mining sector, special shipping for the transportation of raw materials has been made available. During fiscal year 1993/94, this special shipping recorded an increase in terms of volume of freight, number of ships and space capacity.

To enhance the role of the national fleet in international shipping, Indonesia had reduced the number of the ships according to need and instead had increased the efficiency of the national fleet’s management and so, while in 1993/94 Indonesia only operated 25 ships, yet the total number of freight increased to 27,000,000 tons.

By the end of PJP I (First Long-Term Development Period) there were 3 container harbors namely: Tanjung Priok in Jakarta, Belawan in Sumatra and Tanjung Perak in East Java, along with 127 export harbors for supporting international trade. Besides, other port facilities had also been constructed including water breakers, storehouses and passengers seaports.

In the framework of shipping safety, proper facilities had been made available, such as navigational aids, coastal safety guards and the exploitation of shipping channels.


During Repelita V airport facilities and capacity increased considerably. Air transport infrastructures had continuously been rehabilitated, improved and constructed with other transport facilities being continuously provided, thus making the quality of air transportation services be also improving continuously.

Two state airline companies (Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines) serve flights to Europe, the Middle East Countries, Asia, USA and the Asia-Pacific area while two national private airline companies are serving international flights linking various cities in Indonesia with those abroad.

In 1994, Garuda Indonesia decided to concentrate more on international markets with special emphasis on the Asia-Pacific region, as a region with a great demand for flight services. At first Garuda is to serve the Jakarta-Bombay route twice a week and later will also open a new route to Kansai, Japan, three times a week, while domestic routes are to be transferred to Merpati Nusantara Airlines.

The total capacity of passengers and freight carried by international air transportation services during Repelita V was 2,829,438 persons or an increase of 9.9% per year and 65,014 tons of freight or an increase of 7.7% yearly.

In 1993/94, there were 6 airports operating B-747 types, 5 airports capable of handling the CD-10/A-300 type, 10 airports operating F-28 aircraft, and 20 airports for F-27/CN 235 aircraft.

To improve flight safety facilities, Non-Directional Beacons were installed in 19 locations, Very High Frequency-Extended Ranges in two locations, Automatic Message and Switching Centers in other two locations, next to the availability of 19 airports serving international flights.

In the fifth year of Repelita V, the total number of the air transportation fleet being operated included 869 airplanes, of which 246 have capacity of more that 10 tons, 623 airplanes under 10 tons, and 211 serving non-scheduled flights.


The main activities during the First Long-Term Development Period (PJP I) were the rehabilitation of the Automatic Picture Transmission equipments. To that end, continuous rehabilitation, maintenance and improvement had been carried out of various kinds of stations being composed of 114 meteorological stations, 28 geophysical stations, 17 climatoligical observation posts, 3,693 rainfall observation posts, 59 evaporational stations.


Activities towards the development of postal and giro services during Repelita V included the upgrading of post offices particularly of those in the sub-districts; the introduction of envelope standardization; and the usage of a post code system. Besides postal services in the transmigration areas had also been stepped up.

In the fiscal year 1993/94 there were in all 3,692 postal and giro offices consisting of 34 head and first-class post offices, 755 additional post offices and 2,511 sub-post offices, 9 central giro offices and 218 extensions of ticket counters. Also in 1993/94, 866 units of fourth-class sub-post offices were constructed.

To expand and improve the quality of post and giro services in fiscal year 1993/94, the total number of mobile post services had been increased to 726 units for the cities and 5,110 units for the villages. Similarly, the number of computers grew from 119 units in 1991 to 681 in 1994 thus enabling post office facilities to reach and serve 3,774 sub-districts and 970 locations in the transmigration areas.


Telecommunications are moving ahead to meet the nation’s growing demand for telecommunication services. The development of telecommunication infrastructure continues to be directed towards the operation of central automatic and digital telephones to replace manual telephones.

Telecommunications services have improved markedly. By the end of Repelita V, telephone capacity reached 3,012,893 extension unit, while telephone density was 1.59 per 100 persons, up from 1.24 in 1993/93 and .84 in 1991/92.

PT. Telkom, the state-owned enterprise which holds telephone business monopoly in the country, has set the target of installing 5 million new telephones lines for the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan (Repelita VI), starting April 1, 1994.

In 1993/94 a submarine fiber optic network Indonesia-Singapore initiated its operation as part of SKKL South East Asia-Middle East-West Europe (SEAMEWE -2). For domestic purposes a submarine fiber optic network was constructed linking Tanjungkarang in Lampung and Denpasar in Bali which was expected to increase the call ratio in country to 65% for local calls and 45% for long distance calls.

A Memorandum of Understanding has also been signed by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Hongkong, Taiwan, Korea and Japan for developing an Asia Pacific Network (APCN) linking Indonesia with East/Southeast Asia and Pacific countries.

In addition, Home Country Direct services had been introduced which can be dialed from 172 locations in the country to 32 countries with number codes for international telecommunication access being 001 and 008.

During 1993/94 there were 53,835 public telephones consisting of 43,411 public telephone units using coins (TUC) and 10,424 using cards (TUC) and 1,257 units of public telecommunication houses (wartel).

At the same time there were 88,692 lines for mobile telephone network (STB), consisting of 6,192 lines of STB INTI, 31,000 lines of cellular STB, and 51,500 lines of National STB, while the public radio calling service (RPUU) reached 87,118 customers.

After launching the Palapa A1 satellite in 1992, Indonesia has been operating three satellites at the same time, namely Palapa B-2R, Palapa B-2P, and Palapa B4.

For controlling and managing radio frequencies 4 permanent stations, 74 stations with a moving system and one automatic direction finder have been made to operate.

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