Development of transportation and telecommunication is directed
towards the effort to accelerate the flow of passengers, goods, services and
information as well as to expanding the scope of services both at home and
Transportation development is also geared towards better national
transportation along with increased human resources quality that have been
adjusted to economic development, the degree of technological advancement,
space layout, preservation of environmental functions and national energy
During Repelita V (1988/89-1993/94) the betterment, of transportation
and communication services connecting villages, remote places and islands,
transmigration and border areas, was aimed at supporting the even
distribution of development yields through the country.
During Repelita V, the attention was focused on the development of
roads in production centers and roads connecting these centers to marketing
areas. Furthermore, new roads and bridges had also been constructed to open
up the remote areas and to support the development of new settlements
including transmigration sites.
The implementation of road construction has laid particular stress on
the remote and border areas of Easter Indonesia. In 1993/94, 152 km of
roads were constructed in Irian Jaya, in Sulawesi 46 km, in Kalimantan 248
km and in Maluku 23 km. Besides, bridges were also built such as the
Mamberamo bridge in Irian Jaya and the Barito bridge in Kalimantan.
To sustain the development of land, air and sea transportation, at the
end of Repelita V, roads linking main harbors to production as well as
distribution centers such as the Tanjung Priok - Pluit toll road in Jakarta and
the Semarang outer ringroad in Central Java, were constructed.
Additionally, in order to anticipate city transportation problems caused
by the sharp increase of vehicles, especially in Jakarta, and to ease heavy
traffic in dense intersections, the Slipi - Sudirman fly-over and Kuningan-
Casablanca underpass were recently completed.
In an effort to develop national transportation during Repelita V the
system of a one-way traffic flow, and road side parking areas had been made
to work and especially for Jakarta passengers’ limited areas had been
By the end of Repelita V, the number of road transportation facilities
increased by 34.9% compared to that in 1988/89. Accordingly, road
transportation services along with traffic lights, road surface signs pedestrian
crossing lights and centers for examining motor vehicles improved as
In keeping with the increasing number of buses, the construction of
bus stations has been planned, taking into consideration the matter of location
and city planning for the sake of efficiency and effectiveness.
To meet the increasing demand for railway transportation, in 1993/94
various steps were taken including; applying high technology, using the
railway tracks efficiently, doubling the tracks in the dense areas and installing
electronic sign equipment.
Within the framework of improving public services a number of trains
had been added and operated into the system such as the executive class
passenger trains, tourist trains, faster freight trains connecting Jakarta to
Surabaya while introducing the container transportation system.
Furthermore, light rail transit fly-over tracks linking Jakarta and its
satellite towns of Bogor, Bekasi, and Tangerang started to be constructed.
About 64.9 km of light rail transit had already been constructed out of the
planned total of 144.8 km.
RIVER, LAKE AND FERRY TRANSPORTATION
Under Repelita V, the development of river, lake and ferry
transportation had integrated into the road and railways transportation system
so as to enhance their role in connecting the villages, transmigration and
border areas and also the remote islands.
In advancing river, lake and ferry transportation services, in 1993/94
new crossing points were constructed in Kalabahi-Atapupu, Kalabahi-
Baranusa, Baranusa-Balauring in eastern Indonesia, Batam-Bintan in Riau,
and Bitung-Panaru in North Sulawesi. Up to now, the total number of
crossing points is about 54, being served by 57 ships operated by private
On the whole river, lake and ferry transportation services are making
fast progress as can be seen by the increase of the total number of passengers,
freight and vehicles which grew by 29%, 58% and 46% respectively
compared to those in 1988/89. The facilities and infrastructures of these
types of transportation including piers and signs improved significantly.
The policy of sea transportation development during Repelita V was
aimed at improving sea transportation services to make it capable of reaching
the entire country. Besides, the policy was also directed towards the
improvement of the capacity of infrasctucture and facilities as well as of the
quality of services in both domestic and international liners.
The realization of the policy towards increasing sea port facilities,
shipping safety and shipping fleet equipment resulted in the smooth mobility
of people, goods and services as well as in the higher competitive edge of
export commodities in the international market.
During Repelita V, deregulation concerning licensing and operation,
the establishment of shipping companies and on shipping ownership were
issued. This brought the total number of ships to increase from 274 to 525
units, or a rise of 91.6% and the capacity of the Nusantara lines fleet to
increase to 933,240 DWT in 1994 from 503,490 DWT in 1988/89 an
increase of 85.4%.
This increase led to the gradual fusion of local lines into the Nusantara
lines since the enforcement of the regulation concerning sea transportation in
1988. As a consequence, the number of local lines in 1994 had declined
abruptly by 55.5%.
The policy of people’s or traditional shipping is geared towards
providing an opportunity to small-scale enterprises to participate in sea
transportation activities especially in inter-island shipping calling at coastal
villages, so as to create job opportunities in these regions. Parallel with this
traditional people’s shipping “Perla” - race has been held annually, under the
sponsorship of the Indonesian Navy, to promote the shipping.
During Repelita V there was an increase in productivity at an average
of 36.7% annually as the result of increased efficiency between the national
fleet and the capacity of traditional shipping.
Pioneer shipping also plays an important role in connecting the remote
and isolated areas, especially in Eastern Indonesia with other parts of the
country. In 1993/94, there were 30 units of pioneer ships operating
throughout the archipelago.
To intensify the exploration and production activities of the industrial
and mining sector, special shipping for the transportation of raw materials
has been made available. During fiscal year 1993/94, this special shipping
recorded an increase in terms of volume of freight, number of ships and
To enhance the role of the national fleet in international shipping,
Indonesia had reduced the number of the ships according to need and instead
had increased the efficiency of the national fleet’s management and so, while
in 1993/94 Indonesia only operated 25 ships, yet the total number of freight
increased to 27,000,000 tons.
By the end of PJP I (First Long-Term Development Period) there were
3 container harbors namely: Tanjung Priok in Jakarta, Belawan in Sumatra
and Tanjung Perak in East Java, along with 127 export harbors for
supporting international trade. Besides, other port facilities had also been
constructed including water breakers, storehouses and passengers
In the framework of shipping safety, proper facilities had been made
available, such as navigational aids, coastal safety guards and the exploitation
of shipping channels.
During Repelita V airport facilities and capacity increased
considerably. Air transport infrastructures had continuously been
rehabilitated, improved and constructed with other transport facilities being
continuously provided, thus making the quality of air transportation services
be also improving continuously.
Two state airline companies (Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara
Airlines) serve flights to Europe, the Middle East Countries, Asia, USA and
the Asia-Pacific area while two national private airline companies are serving
international flights linking various cities in Indonesia with those abroad.
In 1994, Garuda Indonesia decided to concentrate more on
international markets with special emphasis on the Asia-Pacific region, as a
region with a great demand for flight services. At first Garuda is to serve the
Jakarta-Bombay route twice a week and later will also open a new route to
Kansai, Japan, three times a week, while domestic routes are to be transferred
to Merpati Nusantara Airlines.
The total capacity of passengers and freight carried by international air
transportation services during Repelita V was 2,829,438 persons or an
increase of 9.9% per year and 65,014 tons of freight or an increase of 7.7%
In 1993/94, there were 6 airports operating B-747 types, 5 airports
capable of handling the CD-10/A-300 type, 10 airports operating F-28
aircraft, and 20 airports for F-27/CN 235 aircraft.
To improve flight safety facilities, Non-Directional Beacons were
installed in 19 locations, Very High Frequency-Extended Ranges in two
locations, Automatic Message and Switching Centers in other two locations,
next to the availability of 19 airports serving international flights.
In the fifth year of Repelita V, the total number of the air
transportation fleet being operated included 869 airplanes, of which 246 have
capacity of more that 10 tons, 623 airplanes under 10 tons, and 211 serving
METEOROLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS
The main activities during the First Long-Term Development Period
(PJP I) were the rehabilitation of the Automatic Picture Transmission
equipments. To that end, continuous rehabilitation, maintenance and
improvement had been carried out of various kinds of stations being
composed of 114 meteorological stations, 28 geophysical stations, 17
climatoligical observation posts, 3,693 rainfall observation posts, 59
POSTAL AND GIRO SERVICES
Activities towards the development of postal and giro services during
Repelita V included the upgrading of post offices particularly of those in the
sub-districts; the introduction of envelope standardization; and the usage of a
post code system. Besides postal services in the transmigration areas had also
been stepped up.
In the fiscal year 1993/94 there were in all 3,692 postal and giro
offices consisting of 34 head and first-class post offices, 755 additional post
offices and 2,511 sub-post offices, 9 central giro offices and 218 extensions
of ticket counters. Also in 1993/94, 866 units of fourth-class sub-post offices
To expand and improve the quality of post and giro services in fiscal
year 1993/94, the total number of mobile post services had been increased to
726 units for the cities and 5,110 units for the villages. Similarly, the number
of computers grew from 119 units in 1991 to 681 in 1994 thus enabling post
office facilities to reach and serve 3,774 sub-districts and 970 locations in the
Telecommunications are moving ahead to meet the nation’s growing
demand for telecommunication services. The development of
telecommunication infrastructure continues to be directed towards the
operation of central automatic and digital telephones to replace manual
Telecommunications services have improved markedly. By the end of
Repelita V, telephone capacity reached 3,012,893 extension unit, while
telephone density was 1.59 per 100 persons, up from 1.24 in 1993/93 and .84
PT. Telkom, the state-owned enterprise which holds telephone
business monopoly in the country, has set the target of installing 5 million
new telephones lines for the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan (Repelita
VI), starting April 1, 1994.
In 1993/94 a submarine fiber optic network Indonesia-Singapore
initiated its operation as part of SKKL South East Asia-Middle East-West
Europe (SEAMEWE -2). For domestic purposes a submarine fiber optic
network was constructed linking Tanjungkarang in Lampung and Denpasar
in Bali which was expected to increase the call ratio in country to 65% for
local calls and 45% for long distance calls.
A Memorandum of Understanding has also been signed by Indonesia,
Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Hongkong, Taiwan, Korea
and Japan for developing an Asia Pacific Network (APCN) linking Indonesia
with East/Southeast Asia and Pacific countries.
In addition, Home Country Direct services had been introduced which
can be dialed from 172 locations in the country to 32 countries with number
codes for international telecommunication access being 001 and 008.
During 1993/94 there were 53,835 public telephones consisting of
43,411 public telephone units using coins (TUC) and 10,424 using cards
(TUC) and 1,257 units of public telecommunication houses (wartel).
At the same time there were 88,692 lines for mobile telephone network
(STB), consisting of 6,192 lines of STB INTI, 31,000 lines of cellular STB,
and 51,500 lines of National STB, while the public radio calling service
(RPUU) reached 87,118 customers.
After launching the Palapa A1 satellite in 1992, Indonesia has been
operating three satellites at the same time, namely Palapa B-2R, Palapa B-2P,
and Palapa B4.
For controlling and managing radio frequencies 4 permanent stations,
74 stations with a moving system and one automatic direction finder have
been made to operate.
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